When Hillary Clinton, running as the first female presidential candidate of a major political party, won the popular vote but lost the electoral college vote to Donald Trump in the 2016 election, the glass ceiling preventing women from reaching the White House’s Oval Office trembled but didn’t break. Her candidacy was the most successful to date by a woman, perhaps partly because that glass ceiling was already strewn with fissures from more than 200 other women who, according to Smithsonian.com, had sought the presidency at one time or another. The first woman to actively pursue the country’s highest office was Victoria Woodhull—a stockbroker, newspaper publisher, and champion of social reform who ran for the presidency in 1872, some 50 years before women throughout the United States had achieved the right to vote.
Woodhull made known her intention to seek the presidency in a letter to the New York Herald on April 2, 1870:
While others sought to show that there was no valid reason why woman should be treated socially and politically as a being inferior to man, I boldly entered the arena of politics and business and exercised the rights I already possessed. I therefore claim the right to speak for the unenfranchised women of the country…I now announce myself as a candidate for the Presidency. I am quite well aware that in assuming this position I shall evoke more ridicule than enthusiasm at the outset. But this is an epoch of sudden changes and startling surprises. What may appear absurd to-day will assume a serious aspect to-morrow.
Woodhull was an outsider candidate in more than a few ways. Not only was she a female candidate at a time when women could not vote, but also, at age 31, when she wrote to the Herald, she was four years too young to serve as president, according to the requirements of the U.S. Constitution. Moreover, while she was supported by some of her fellow suffragettes, the mainstream, mostly middle-class advocates of women’s suffrage, notably Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, carefully distanced themselves from Woodhull, whom they considered an eccentric at best. At worst they saw her as an uncouth libertine loony whose advocacy of free love and interest in spiritualism could damage their movement.
But if free love connoted loose morals to many people, for Woodhull it meant the freedom to love and marry the person one chose and the right to divorce. The Equal Rights Party, which nominated Woodhull as its presidential candidate on May 10, 1872, at Apollo Hall in New York City, championed, among other things, women’s right to a fair wage, shorter workdays for all workers, and civil rights for African Americans (selecting renowned abolitionist Frederick Douglass as Woodhull’s running mate, though he chose not to respond to the invitation). Ultimately, however, it was Woodhull’s statements about free love that were glommed onto by newspapers, undermining her candidacy.
Woodhull’s name did not appear on any ballots, and an absence of records has left no evidence of how many votes she received. Her decidedly insurgent candidacy, though, helped break ground for the women who would run for president after her, from the pre-suffrage candidacy of Belva Ann Lockwood in 1884 and 1888 to the candidacies of Margaret Chase Smith, who at the 1964 Republican convention became the first woman to have her named entered into nomination at a major party's convention, Shirley Chisholm, who in 1972 became the first African American woman to run for the nomination of a major political party as its candidate for president, and Pat Schroeder, who briefly pursued the 1988 Democratic nomination. The latter, when asked how she was able to be both a mother and a member of Congress, replied “I have a brain and a uterus and I use both.”