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  • violoncello (musical instrument)

    Cello, bass musical instrument of the violin group, with four strings, pitched C–G–D–A upward from two octaves below middle C. The cello, about 27.5 inches (70 cm) long (47 inches [119 cm] with the neck), has proportionally deeper ribs and a shorter neck than the violin. The earliest cellos were

  • violoncello piccolo (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Other violins: …sympathetic strings) or the elusive violoncello piccolo (a small cello). These instruments have been in disuse for many years, except for historical reconstructions of earlier music.

  • violone (musical instrument)

    viol: …sizes was later added the violone, a double bass viol often tuned an octave below the bass.

  • Vios kai politia tou Alexi Zormpa (novel by Kazantzakis)

    Zorba the Greek, novel by Nikos Kazantzákis, published in Greek in 1946 as Víos kai politía tou Aléxi Zormpá. The unnamed narrator is a scholarly, introspective writer who opens a coal mine on the fertile island of Crete. He is gradually drawn out of his ascetic shell by an ebullient villager named

  • Viotti, Giovanni Battista (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Battista Viotti, Italian violinist and composer, principal founder of the 19th-century school of violin playing. In 1766 Viotti went to Turin, where he studied with the virtuoso Gaetano Pugnani after 1770. He travelled with Pugnani in Germany, Poland, and Russia and made his debut in Paris

  • VIP (biochemistry)

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a 28-amino-acid polypeptide secreted by cells throughout the intestinal tract. It stimulates the secretion of electrolytes and water by the intestinal mucosa. Some pancreatic islet-cell tumours secrete excessive amounts of VIP (a condition called

  • Vipasha River (river, India)

    Beas River, river in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab states, northwestern India. It is one of the five rivers that give the Punjab (“Five Rivers”) its name. The Beas rises at an elevation of 14,308 feet (4,361 metres) at Rohtang Pass in the western (Punjab) Himalayas (a section of the vast Himalayas

  • vipassanā (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: Meditation: …of Theravada meditation is called vipassana (Pali: “inner vision” or “insight meditation”). This practice requires intense concentration, which is thought to lead to a one-pointedness of mind that allows the meditator to gain insight into the saving truth that all reality is impermanent, permeated by suffering, and devoid of self.…

  • Vipatti knun samarabhumi sneha (novel by Duong Ratha)

    Khmer literature: French influence: One such “survival novel,” Vipatti knun samarabhumi sneha (1990; “Disaster in the Battlefield of Love”), written in the United States by Duong Ratha, is unusual for its portrayal of life in the Khmer Rouge “liberation zones” before the fall of Phnom Penh in 1975. Within Cambodia itself, a revival…

  • viper (snake)

    Viper, (family Viperidae), any of more than 200 species of venomous snakes belonging to two groups: pit vipers (subfamily Crotalinae) and Old World vipers (subfamily Viperinae), which are considered separate families by some authorities. They eat small animals and hunt by striking and envenomating

  • Viper Club (film by Keshavarz [2018])

    Susan Sarandon: …taken hostage in Syria in Viper Club (2018).

  • Viper in the Fist (work by Bazin)

    Hervé Bazin: …novel Vipère au poing (Viper in the Fist). In this book he portrays his unhappy childhood as an unrelenting battle with his mother, a monstrous figure who assumes near-mythic proportions through the concentrated energy of her own virulence. Bazin’s relentless attacks upon the institutions of family, church, and motherhood…

  • viper’s bugloss (plant)

    bugloss: Viper’s bugloss (Echium vulgare), also known as blue devil or blue weed, has bright-blue flowers and grows to a height of about 90 cm (35 inches). It is a bristly European plant that has become naturalized in North America. Purple viper’s bugloss (E. plantagineum) is…

  • Vipera aspis (snake)

    asp: European aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) of France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy are often referred to as asps. Adult aspic vipers may reach 50 cm (20 inches) in total length, although most are smaller. They live in a variety of habitats ranging from sea level to…

  • Vipera berus (snake)

    adder: The European common adder, or European viper (V. berus), a serpent often mentioned in works of literature, is a stout-bodied snake that is widely distributed across Europe and Asia. It even ranges north of the Arctic Circle in Norway. It grows to a maximum length of approximately 85 cm (33…

  • Vipère au poing (work by Bazin)

    Hervé Bazin: …novel Vipère au poing (Viper in the Fist). In this book he portrays his unhappy childhood as an unrelenting battle with his mother, a monstrous figure who assumes near-mythic proportions through the concentrated energy of her own virulence. Bazin’s relentless attacks upon the institutions of family, church, and motherhood…

  • viperfish (fish)

    Viperfish, any of nine species of marine fishes belonging to the genus Chauliodus (order Stomiiformes). They are found in tropical regions of the major oceans. The viperfishes are deep-sea dwellers and have luminescent organs along the sides; the lights sometimes function in the attraction of other

  • Viperidae (snake)

    Viper, (family Viperidae), any of more than 200 species of venomous snakes belonging to two groups: pit vipers (subfamily Crotalinae) and Old World vipers (subfamily Viperinae), which are considered separate families by some authorities. They eat small animals and hunt by striking and envenomating

  • Viperinae (reptile)

    viper: …pit vipers (subfamily Crotalinae) and Old World vipers (subfamily Viperinae), which are considered separate families by some authorities. They eat small animals and hunt by striking and envenomating their prey. Vipers are characterized by a pair of long, hollow, venom-injecting fangs attached to movable bones of the upper jaw (the…

  • Vipers’ Tangle (work by Mauriac)

    Fran?ois Mauriac: Le Noeud de vipères (1932; Vipers’ Tangle) is often considered Mauriac’s masterpiece. It is a marital drama, depicting an old lawyer’s rancour toward his family, his passion for money, and his final conversion. In this, as in other Mauriac novels, the love that his characters seek vainly in human contacts…

  • Viphya Mountains (highlands, Malawi)

    Viphya Mountains, highlands in north-central Malawi. They comprise two main blocks, divided by a 15-mile- (24-km-) wide saddle (pass), and extend 130 miles (209 km) from Mount Champhila (5,971 feet [1,820 metres]) in the south to Mount Uzumara (6,375 feet [1,943 metres]) in the north-northeast.

  • VIPR team (United States government program)

    Transportation Security Administration: …a public presence with its VIPR teams (Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response teams), members of which are easily identifiable as security officers and who patrol railways and mass transit systems. Other modes of transportation that are also under the purview of the TSA include freight carriers moving across the nation’s…

  • Vipya Mountains (highlands, Malawi)

    Viphya Mountains, highlands in north-central Malawi. They comprise two main blocks, divided by a 15-mile- (24-km-) wide saddle (pass), and extend 130 miles (209 km) from Mount Champhila (5,971 feet [1,820 metres]) in the south to Mount Uzumara (6,375 feet [1,943 metres]) in the north-northeast.

  • Vir (Hindu and Indian nationalist)

    Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Hindu and Indian nationalist and leading figure in the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”), a Hindu nationalist organization and political party. While a student of law in London (1906–10), Savarkar helped to instruct a group of Indian revolutionaries in methods of

  • Vir Singh, Bhai (Indian writer and theologian)

    Bhai Vir Singh, Sikh writer and theologian who was chiefly responsible for raising the Punjabi language to a literary level never before attained. He wrote at a time when Sikh religion and politics and the Punjabi language were under such strong attack by the English and Hindus that the Sikhs had

  • Vira Narasimha (king of Vijayanagar)

    India: Reconsolidation: …and successor, best known as Vira Narasimha (reigned 1503–09), ended the sham of regency. After ordering the by-then grown Immadi Narasimha’s murder in 1505, he ascended the throne and inaugurated the Tuluva dynasty, the third dynasty of Vijayanagar. The usurpation again provoked opposition, which the new king spent most of…

  • Vira satsaī (work by Suryamal Misrama)

    South Asian arts: Rajasthani: …the Vamsa Bhaskara and the Vira satsaī. The Vamsa Bhaskara contains accounts of the Rājput princes who ruled in what was then Rājputāna (at present the state of Rājasthān), during the lifetime of the poet (1872–1952). The Vira satsaī is a collection of couplets dealing with historical heroes. Two other…

  • Viracocha (Inca deity)

    Viracocha, creator deity originally worshiped by the pre-Inca inhabitants of Peru and later assimilated into the Inca pantheon. He was believed to have created the sun and moon on Lake Titicaca. According to tradition, after forming the rest of the heavens and the earth, Viracocha wandered through

  • Viracocha Inca (emperor of Incas)

    Aymara: About 1430 the Inca emperor Viracocha began conquests southward from his capital at Cuzco. Aymara territories ultimately formed a major part of the Inca empire, against which the Aymara continually revolted.

  • Viracocha, Temple of (temple, San Pedro Cacha, Peru)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Temples and shrines: The ruins of the Temple of Viracocha at San Pedro Cacha (Peru), however, had a ground plan that measured 330 by 87 feet, which indicates that it was designed for use other than the storage of priestly regalia.

  • Virág, Benedek (Hungarian writer)

    Hungarian literature: The period of the Enlightenment: …eminently suited) were followed by Benedek Virág, who imbued with poetic inspiration verse forms that for his predecessors were merely formal exercises. It fell to Dániel Berzsenyi, who published a single volume of poetry, in 1813, to show what use a great poet could make of classical metre. His ode…

  • virago sleeve (clothing)

    dress: Colonial America: It often had the virago sleeve—full at elbow and shoulder and drawn in at intervals by strings of narrow ribbon—that appears in most 17th-century portraits of American women and children.

  • Virahsawmy, Dev (Mauritian writer)

    Mauritius: The arts and cultural institutions: …the best-known local writer is Dev Virahsawmy, a poet and playwright. Though he writes easily in both French and English, Virahsawmy is most renowned for his efforts to popularize the use of Creole. In addition to his own plays and poetry, he has also translated several of Shakespeare’s plays into…

  • viral antigen detection (chemistry)

    bird flu: Detection of bird flu: Other methods include viral antigen detection, which detects the reaction of antibodies to viral antigens in samples of skin cells or mucus, and viral culture, which is used to confirm the identity of specific subtypes of influenza based on the results of PCR or antigen detection and requires…

  • viral culture (chemistry)

    bird flu: Detection of bird flu: …skin cells or mucus, and viral culture, which is used to confirm the identity of specific subtypes of influenza based on the results of PCR or antigen detection and requires growth of the virus in cells in a laboratory. Tests based on lab-on-a-chip technology that take less than an hour…

  • viral diarrhea (pathology)

    gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis, or viral diarrhea, is perhaps the most common type of diarrhea worldwide; rotaviruses, caliciviruses, Norwalk viruses, and adenoviruses are the most common causes. Other forms of gastroenteritis include food poisoning, cholera

  • viral disease

    Viral disease, disease caused by viruses. Long-term immunity usually follows viral childhood diseases (see chickenpox). The common cold recurs into adulthood because many different viruses cause its symptoms, and immunity against one does not protect against others. Some viruses mutate fast enough

  • viral gastroenteritis (pathology)

    gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis, or viral diarrhea, is perhaps the most common type of diarrhea worldwide; rotaviruses, caliciviruses, Norwalk viruses, and adenoviruses are the most common causes. Other forms of gastroenteritis include food poisoning, cholera

  • viral genetics

    genetics: Microbial genetics: Viral genetics is another key part of microbial genetics. The genetics of viruses that attack bacteria were the first to be elucidated. Since then, studies and findings of viral genetics have been applied to viruses pathogenic on plants and animals, including humans. Viruses are also…

  • viral genome (biology)

    nucleic acid: Viral genomes: Many viruses use RNA for their genetic material. This is most prevalent among eukaryotic viruses, but a few prokaryotic RNA viruses are also known. Some common examples include poliovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and influenza virus, all of which affect humans, and tobacco…

  • viral hemorrhagic fever (pathology)

    Viral hemorrhagic fever, any of a variety of highly fatal viral diseases that are characterized by massive external or internal bleeding or bleeding into the skin. Other symptoms vary by the type of viral hemorrhagic fever but often include fever, malaise, muscle aches, vomiting, and shock. Most

  • viral load (medicine)

    AIDS: Life cycle of HIV: , the viral load—which provides an indication of how fast the virus is replicating and destroying helper T cells.

  • viral meningitis (pathology)

    lumbar puncture: Viral meningitis can be differentiated from bacterial meningitis by the type of white blood cells identified in the CSF. In addition, culturing a sample of the fluid to determine whether bacteria are present is an effective way to distinguish between different causes of meningitis. Fluctuations…

  • viral myositis (pathology)

    muscle disease: Inflammatory myopathies: An example of viral myositis is pleurodynia (also called Bornholm disease, epidemic myalgia, and devil’s grip), which is caused by the Coxsackie virus. Affected persons recover completely after a brief period of intense muscular pain and fever.

  • viral nerve deafness (pathology)

    ear disease: Viral nerve deafness: Viral infections can cause severe degrees of sensorineural hearing loss in one ear, and sometimes in both, at any age. The mumps virus is one of the commonest causes of severe sensorineural hearing loss in one ear. The measles and influenza viruses…

  • viral pharyngitis (pathology)

    pharyngitis: Viral pharyngitis infections also occur. They can produce raised whitish to yellow lesions in the pharynx that are surrounded by reddened tissue. They cause fever, headache, and sore throat that last for 4 to 14 days. Lymphatic tissue in the pharynx may also become involved.

  • viral rhinopneumonitis (pathology)

    livestock farming: Diseases: … in horses: virus abortion, specifically viral rhinopneumonitis, and the Salmonella type. The former, which produces an influenza with pinkeye, catarrh, general illness, and abortion, affects both mares and foals, but all surviving horses develop natural resistance soon after infection. Pregnant mares thought to be subjected to infection may be given…

  • viral vector (biotechnology)

    gene therapy: Prerequisites for gene therapy: …typically referred to as a viral vector) for the gene, demonstrating that the transferred gene can express itself in the host cell, and establishing that the procedure is safe. Few clinical trials of gene therapy in humans have satisfied all those conditions, often because the delivery system fails to reach…

  • Virales (biology)

    Virus, infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria. The name is from a Latin word meaning “slimy liquid” or “poison.” The earliest indications of the biological nature of viruses came from studies in 1892 by the

  • Virashaiva (Hindu sect)

    Lingayat, member of a Hindu sect with a wide following in southern India that worships Shiva as the only deity. The followers take their name (“lingam-wearers”) from the small representations of a lingam, a votary object symbolizing Shiva, which both the men and the women always wear hanging by a

  • Virā?e?vara (temple, Sohāgpur, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style of central India: By contrast, the Virā?e?vara temple at Sohāgpur, with an unusually tall and narrow ?ekharī spire, is covered with sculptural ornamentation as rich as that of Khajurāho.

  • Virbius (Roman hero)

    Diana: …of childbirth, and the hero Virbius (the Italian counterpart of Hippolytus), who was said to have been the first priest of Diana’s cult at Aricia. A unique and peculiar custom dictated that this priest be a runaway slave and that he slay his predecessor in combat.

  • Virchow, Rudolf (German scientist)

    Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist and statesman, one of the most prominent physicians of the 19th century. He pioneered the modern concept of pathological processes by his application of the cell theory to explain the effects of disease in the organs and tissues of the body. He emphasized that

  • Virchow, Rudolf Carl (German scientist)

    Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist and statesman, one of the most prominent physicians of the 19th century. He pioneered the modern concept of pathological processes by his application of the cell theory to explain the effects of disease in the organs and tissues of the body. He emphasized that

  • Virchows Archiv (journal by Virchow and Reinhardt)

    Rudolf Virchow: Early career: …Benno Reinhardt, a new journal, Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie, und für klinische Medizin (“Archives for Pathological Anatomy and Physiology, and for Clinical Medicine”). After Reinhardt’s death in 1852, Virchow continued as sole editor of the journal, later known as Virchows Archiv, until his own death 50 years later.

  • Virden (Illinois, United States)

    Virden, city, Macoupin county, west-central Illinois, U.S. Virden lies about 20 miles (30 km) south of Springfield. Laid out in 1852 along the Chicago and Mississippi Railroad, it was named for John Virden, a local innkeeper. A coal-mining town, Virden was the scene of a mine riot on October 12,

  • Virdung, Sebastian (German organologist)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: …such as the German organologist Sebastian Virdung in 1511 and as such were restricted to popular entertainment or signaling. Written music of this period does not help to determine whether, or how, idiophones were played with voices or with other instruments.

  • Viread (drug)

    AIDS: Condoms, vaccines, gels, and other prevention methods: …took a pill known as Viread, which contained only tenofovir; those individuals experienced 62 percent fewer infections relative to participants who did not take the pill. Truvada had been approved in 2004 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a combination therapy (used with other drugs) for HIV…

  • virelai (French vocal music)

    Virelai, one of several formes fixes (“fixed forms”) in French lyric poetry and song of the 14th and 15th centuries (compare ballade; rondeau). It probably did not originate in France, and it takes on several different forms even within the French tradition. Similar forms can be found in most of

  • virelay (French vocal music)

    Virelai, one of several formes fixes (“fixed forms”) in French lyric poetry and song of the 14th and 15th centuries (compare ballade; rondeau). It probably did not originate in France, and it takes on several different forms even within the French tradition. Similar forms can be found in most of

  • Virén, Lasse (Finnish athlete)

    Lasse Virén, Finnish distance runner who was the first athlete to win gold medals in both the 5,000- and 10,000-metre races at consecutive Olympic Games: at Munich, West Germany, in 1972 and at Montreal in 1976. At age 19 Virén dropped out of school to train under Rolf Haikkola, a follower of the

  • vireo (bird)

    Vireo, (family Vireonidae), any of approximately 50 species of New World birds in the order Passeriformes. These include peppershrikes and, according to some authorities, the shrike-vireos. About 15 tropical forms are called greenlets, which used to be the common name for all vireos. New evidence

  • Vireo griseus (bird)

    vireo: …in general appearance is the white-eyed vireo (V. griseus). In Bermuda, where it is common, it is known as “chick-of-the-village,” a moniker that repeats its snappy, distinctive song. The cheerful warbled song of the warbling vireo (V. gilvus) is a common sound in open woods throughout the North American summer.…

  • Vireo olivaceus (bird)

    vireo: …species of vireo is the red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), which breeds from southern Canada to Argentina. It is 15 cm (6 inches) long, with a black-outlined white eye stripe that contrasts with the bird’s gray crown. Similar in general appearance is the white-eyed vireo (V. griseus). In Bermuda, where it…

  • Vireolaniidae (bird)

    Shrike-vireo, (genus Vireolanius), any of about four species of tropical American songbirds, characterized by a stout, slightly hooked bill (like the true shrikes in the family Laniidae) but with anatomical features that ally them with the vireos (family Vireonidae; order Passeriformes).

  • Vireolanius (bird)

    Shrike-vireo, (genus Vireolanius), any of about four species of tropical American songbirds, characterized by a stout, slightly hooked bill (like the true shrikes in the family Laniidae) but with anatomical features that ally them with the vireos (family Vireonidae; order Passeriformes).

  • Vireonidae (bird)

    Vireo, (family Vireonidae), any of approximately 50 species of New World birds in the order Passeriformes. These include peppershrikes and, according to some authorities, the shrike-vireos. About 15 tropical forms are called greenlets, which used to be the common name for all vireos. New evidence

  • Viret, Pierre (Swiss religious reformer)

    Pierre Viret, champion of the Reformation in the Swiss canton of the Vaud and the most important native religious Reformer of French-speaking Switzerland. In 1531 Viret came under the influence of the fugitive French religious Reformer Guillaume Farel and began preaching in the Vaud soon after. As

  • virga (meteorology)

    thunderstorm: Downbursts: …precipitation is referred to as virga), and the microburst will be dry.

  • Virgen de la Paz, Monumento a la (statue, Trujillo, Venezuela)

    Trujillo: …is the site of the Monumento a la Virgen de la Paz, a statue of Mary that is one of the tallest monuments in Latin America, reaching a height of 150 feet (46 metres) and located at about 5,600 feet (1,700 metres) above sea level. The state is served by…

  • Virgens loucas (work by Gon?alves)

    António Aurélio Gon?alves: … (1970; “Night of Wind”) and Virgens loucas (1971; “Crazy Virgins”) also have female protagonists. In the former, he created an extremely beautiful dark-skinned woman who follows her own desires, and in the latter, he paralleled the book of Matthew with a story about three prostitutes. Gon?alves’ world and his women…

  • Virgidemiarum: Six Books (work by Hall)

    satire: Historical definitions: (Virgidemiarum, V, 3, 1–4)

  • Virgil (Roman poet)

    Virgil, Roman poet, best known for his national epic, the Aeneid (from c. 30 bce; unfinished at his death). Virgil was regarded by the Romans as their greatest poet, an estimation that subsequent generations have upheld. His fame rests chiefly upon the Aeneid, which tells the story of Rome’s

  • Virgile travesty (work by Scarron)

    travesty: …an imitation of the French Virgile travesty (1648–53) by Paul Scarron. (The use of the word travesty—literally, “dressed in disguise”—in the title of Scarron’s work gave rise to the English word, first as an adjective.) Later the French developed the féeries folies, a musical burlesque that travestied fairy tales.

  • Virgilia (fictional character)

    Coriolanus: …brings with her Coriolanus’s wife, Virgilia, and his son—to make peace with Rome, and in the end he is killed at the instigation of his Volscian ally.

  • Virgilian Series (geology)

    Virgilian series, major division of Late Carboniferous rocks and time in the United States (the Late Carboniferous epoch, approximately equivalent to the Pennsylvanian period, began about 318 million years ago and ended about 299 million years ago). Named for exposures studied in the region of

  • Virgin and Child (window, Chartres, France)

    stained glass: 12th century: …Canterbury or like the well-known Virgin and Child known as La Belle Verrière at Chartres. The most important feature of the 12th century, however, was the development of the narrative window, consisting of a series of medallions painted with pictorial subjects. This type of window was, so far as is…

  • Virgin and Child (religious art)

    putto: …century, especially those of the Madonna and Child. With the revival of classical mythological subjects in the late 15th century, Cupid was commonly represented as a putto, and numbers of anonymous putti were frequently depicted in attendance on various immortals.

  • Virgin and Child Between SS. Frediano and Augustin (altarpiece by Lippi)

    Fra Filippo Lippi: Life and works: …he returned from Padua: The Virgin and Child Between SS. Frediano and Augustin and the Madonna and Child. In both of these altarpieces, the influence of Masaccio is still evident, but it is absorbed into a different style, having the pictorial effect of bas-relief, rendered more evident by lines, so…

  • Virgin and Child Enthroned (painting by Guido da Siena)

    Guido da Siena: …large painting of the “Virgin and Child Enthroned,” once in the Church of San Domenico at Siena and later moved to the Palazzo Pubblico. It bears a rhymed Latin inscription, giving the painter’s name as “Gu . . . o de Senis,” with the date 1221. Certain critics argue…

  • Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Saints (altarpiece by Rosso Fiorentino)

    Rosso Fiorentino: …commissioned to paint an altarpiece, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Saints, for a Florentine church. When his patrons saw what they perceived as harsh, devilish depictions of the saints in the picture, they rejected it. After this incident, Rosso left Florence for Volterra, and there he painted Deposition (1521).…

  • Virgin and Child with Saints and Donor (painting by David)

    Gerard David: 1502–07) at Bruges; the Virgin and Child with Saints and Donor (c. 1505); the Annunciation (1506) on two panels; and, above all, the documented altarpiece of the Madonna with Angels and Saints (1509). These are mature works—severe yet richly coloured, showing a masterful handling of light, volume, and space.…

  • Virgin and Child with Saints and Donors, The (triptycle by Memling)

    Hans Memling: …that for the triptych of The Virgin and Child with Saints and Donors (sometimes called the Donne Triptych because Memling’s patron was Sir John Donne). Once dated very early—about 1468—because it was believed that the patron commissioned the work while visiting Bruges for the wedding of Charles the Bold (duke…

  • Virgin and Child with St. Anne (painting by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Leonardo da Vinci: The Mona Lisa and other works: Even before it was completed, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne won the critical acclaim of the Florentines; the monumental three-dimensional quality of the group and the calculated effects of dynamism and tension in the composition made it a model that inspired Classicists and Mannerists in equal measure.

  • Virgin and Child with St. Anne (painting by Masolino)

    Masolino: …of Masaccio is a “Virgin and Child with St. Anne” (c. 1420; Uffizi, Florence). It is thought that this work may be the result of a collaboration of the two artists.

  • Virgin and Idle Lands Campaign (Soviet history)

    Nursultan: …Soviet period by the government’s Virgin and Idle Lands Campaign of the mid-1950s—Tselinograd was Russian for “City of the Virgin Lands”—and by the city’s role as capital of a kray (region) that united the five northern provinces of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1960–65. There was much new construction…

  • Virgin and Idle Lands project (Soviet history)

    Nursultan: …Soviet period by the government’s Virgin and Idle Lands Campaign of the mid-1950s—Tselinograd was Russian for “City of the Virgin Lands”—and by the city’s role as capital of a kray (region) that united the five northern provinces of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1960–65. There was much new construction…

  • Virgin Atlantic Airways (British company)

    Richard Branson: …the airline that he renamed Virgin Atlantic Airways. Beginning with a single aircraft, the carrier succeeded despite fierce opposition from established airlines, and in 1992 Branson sold Virgin Records to raise additional money for Virgin Atlantic.

  • Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer (aircraft)

    Steve Fossett: Piloting the GlobalFlyer, a specialized plane that featured 13 fuel tanks and a 7-foot (2-metre) cockpit, he took off from Salina, Kansas, on February 28 and returned there some 67 hours later, on March 3. On February 8, 2006, he undertook the longest nonstop airplane flight, taking…

  • Virgin Birth (Christianity)

    Virgin Birth, doctrine of traditional Christianity that Jesus Christ had no natural father but was conceived by Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit. The doctrine that Mary was the sole natural parent of Jesus is based on the infancy narratives contained in the Gospel accounts of Matthew and

  • Virgin Enthroned with Child and Saints, The (painting by Crivelli)

    Carlo Crivelli: …apparent; a “Pietà” (1485); “The Virgin Enthroned with Child and Saints” (1491), the masterpiece of his mature style; and the eccentric and powerful late masterpiece “Coronation of the Virgin” (1493).

  • Virgin Galactic (British company)

    Richard Branson: In 2004 Branson formed Virgin Galactic, a space tourism company that was working toward offering commercial suborbital passenger flights. In 2006 Branson sold Virgin Mobile, a wireless phone service, though he remained the largest shareholder of the company, which was later renamed Virgin Media, Inc. That same year he…

  • Virgin Gorda Island (island, British Virgin Islands)

    Virgin Gorda Island, one of the British Virgin Islands, in the West Indies, lying 80 miles (130 km) east of Puerto Rico. It forms two rectangles joined by a spit, or point, of land. The peninsula in the southwest is flat and strewn with enormous granite boulders, some more than 30 feet (9 metres)

  • Virgin in the Garden, The (novel by Byatt)

    A.S. Byatt: …publication of her highly acclaimed The Virgin in the Garden (1978). The novel is a complex story set in 1953, at the time of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. It was written as the first of a tetralogy that chronicles the lives of three members of one family from…

  • Virgin Islands (islands, Caribbean Sea)

    Virgin Islands, group of about 90 small islands, islets, cays, and rocks in the West Indies, situated some 40 to 50 miles (64 to 80 kilometres) east of Puerto Rico. The islands extend from west to east for about 60 miles and are located west of the Anegada Passage, a major channel connecting the

  • Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (national monument, United States Virgin Islands)

    Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, natural marine area lying off the island of St. John in the United States Virgin Islands, West Indies. The national monument was created in 2001 to further protect the resources of Virgin Islands National Park. It encompasses about 22 square miles (56

  • Virgin Islands Council of the Arts (organization, United States Virgin Islands)

    Virgin Islands: Cultural life: In 1965, however, the Virgin Islands Council of the Arts was created as an adjunct of the U.S. National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. Community arts councils have been formed on all three American islands. They sponsor theatrical performances and provide training in the arts and crafts.

  • Virgin Islands National Park (park, United States Virgin Islands)

    Virgin Islands National Park, conservation area covering some three-fifths of the island of St. John in the United States Virgin Islands, West Indies. The park was established in 1956 and now also includes waters surrounding St. John (added in 1962) and most of Hassel Island (1978) in the harbour

  • Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (government agency, United States Virgin Islands)

    Virgin Islands: Climate: Thomas, where the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority, established in 1965, now operates several saltwater-distillation plants. A seawater desalination plant is located in Christiansted on St. Croix. Maximum use of salt water is made everywhere in the islands.

  • Virgin Martyr, The (work by Massinger and Dekker)

    Philip Massinger: …in a French setting, and The Virgin Martyr (1620?, with Thomas Dekker), a historical play about the persecution of Christians under the Roman emperor Diocletian. Fifteen plays written solely by Massinger have survived, but many of their dates can only be conjectured. The four tragedies are The Duke of Milan…

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