You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Villaverde, Cirilo (Cuban author)

    Latin American literature: Romanticism: …Customs), by the Cuban exile Cirilo Villaverde, perhaps the best Latin American novel of the 19th century. Villaverde’s only competition comes from two other novels named after their women protagonists: María (1867; María: A South American Romance), by the Colombian Jorge Isaacs, and Amalia (1851–55; Amalia: A Romance of the…

  • Villavicencio (Colombia)

    Villavicencio, capital of Meta departamento, central Colombia, situated on the eastern slopes of the Andean Cordillera (mountains) Oriental. Founded in 1840, the city was named after Antonio Villavicencio, who was an early advocate of the struggle for independence from Spain. It serves as an

  • Villavicencio, Antonio (Colombian patriot)

    Villavicencio: …the city was named after Antonio Villavicencio, who was an early advocate of the struggle for independence from Spain. It serves as an important manufacturing and commercial centre for the Llanos (plains) and rainforests of eastern Colombia. Industries in Villavicencio include a distillery, a brewery, soap factories, coffee-roasting plants, rice…

  • Villaviciosa (Spain)

    Villaviciosa, port town, Asturias provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain, in the Costa Verde resort area. The town is a fishing port northeast of Oviedo city, where the Villaviciosa Inlet enters the Bay of Biscay. Used by the ancient Romans as a

  • Villaviciosa, Battle of (Spanish history)

    Spain: The last years of Philip IV: …at Ameixial (1663) and at Villaviciosa on the northern coast of Spain (1665). Spain finally formally recognized Portugal’s independence in 1668.

  • Villavieja (Costa Rica)

    Heredia, city, central Costa Rica. It is located in the Valle Central at an elevation of 3,729 feet (1,137 metres) above sea level, just northwest of San José, the national capital, via the Inter-American (Pan-American) Highway. Probably founded in the 1570s, the city was originally called

  • Ville Basse (Carcassonne, France)

    Carcassonne: The Ville Basse was founded in 1240 when rebellious citizens of the Cité were banished beyond the walls. It was burned by Edward the Black Prince in 1355 when he failed to take the citadel. The church of Saint-Vincent and the cathedral of Saint-Michel, both 13th…

  • Ville de Bretagne (town, France)

    Morlaix, seaport town, Finistère département, Brittany région, western France, situated on the Dossen estuary, a tidal inlet of the English Channel, northeast of Brest. Coins found in the vicinity suggest Roman occupation of the site (possibly Mons Relaxus). The counts of Léon held the lordship in

  • ville neuf (settlement)

    history of the Low Countries: Social and economic structure: …in the French-speaking areas as villes neuves), to which colonists were attracted by offers of advantageous conditions—which were also intended to benefit the original estates. Many of these colonists were younger sons who had no share in the inheritance of their fathers’ farms. The Cistercian and Premonstratensian monks, whose rules…

  • Ville, H?tel de (building, Metz, France)

    Jacques-Fran?ois Blondel: …of Metz (1764), including the H?tel de Ville (1765).

  • Ville, Théatre de la (theatre, Paris, France)

    Sarah Bernhardt: International success: …is now known as the Théatre de la Ville.

  • Ville-de-Paris (department, France)

    ?le-de-France: Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis, Ville-de-Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, and Yvelines. ?le-de-France is bounded by the régions of Hauts-de-France to the north, Grand Est to the east, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the southeast, Centre to the south, and Normandy

  • Ville-sur-Illon, Bernard-Germain-étienne de La, comte de Lacépède (French naturalist and politician)

    étienne de La Ville-sur-Illon, count de Lacépède, French naturalist and politician who made original contributions to the knowledge of fishes and reptiles. Lacépède’s Essai sur l’électricité naturelle et artificielle (1781; “Essay on Natural and Artificial Electricity”) and Physique générale et

  • Villefranche-sur-Mer (France)

    Villefranche-sur-Mer, harbour town and Mediterranean resort, Alpes-Maritimes département, Provence–Alpes–C?te d’Azur région, southeastern France. Situated on the wooded slopes surrounding the magnificent roadsteads immediately east of Nice, the town is dominated by Mount Boron. It is connected by a

  • Villefranche-sur-Sa?ne (France)

    Villefranche-sur-Sa?ne, town, Rh?ne département, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes région, east-central France, located 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the Sa?ne River. Founded in the 12th century, the town became the capital of the Beaujolais district. After enduring three sieges in the 15th and 16th centuries, the

  • Villegagnon Island (island, Brazil)

    Villegagnon Island, island in Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, connected by a causeway to Rio de Janeiro’s Santos Dumont Airport on the mainland. In 1555 French Huguenots from nearby Laje Island under Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon established the colony of La France Antarctique and Fort

  • Villegas, Esteban Manuel de (Spanish poet)

    Esteban Manuel de Villegas, Spanish lyric poet who achieved great popularity with an early book of poems, Poesías eróticas y amatorias (1617–18). He first studied classics at the University of Madrid, translating works of the 6th-century-bc Greek poet Anacreon at the age of 14, and later obtained a

  • Villehardouin, Geoffrey of (French general)

    Geoffrey of Villehardouin, French soldier, chronicler, marshal of Champagne, and one of the leaders of the Fourth Crusade (1201–04), which he described in his Conquest of Constantinople. He was the first serious writer of an original prose history in Old French. Although he was only one of the

  • Villehardouin, William II (prince of Achaea)

    Greece: The Peloponnese: …most successful under its prince William II Villehardouin (1246–78), but in 1259 he had to cede a number of fortresses, including Mistra, Monemvasiá, and Maina, to the Byzantines. Internecine squabbles weakened resistance to Byzantine pressure, especially from the 1370s onward, when Jacques de Baux hired the Navarrese Company to fight…

  • villein

    Serfdom, condition in medieval Europe in which a tenant farmer was bound to a hereditary plot of land and to the will of his landlord. The vast majority of serfs in medieval Europe obtained their subsistence by cultivating a plot of land that was owned by a lord. This was the essential feature

  • villeinage (feudalism)

    feudal land tenure: …type of unfree tenancy was villenage, initially a modified form of servitude. Whereas the mark of free tenants was that their services were always predetermined, in unfree tenure they were not; the unfree tenant never knew what he might be called to do for his lord. Although at first the…

  • Villeinage in England (work by Vinogradoff)

    Sir Paul Gavrilovitch Vinogradoff: Vinogradoff’s most important work is Villeinage in England (1892; originally published in Russian, 1887), in which he advanced the theory that the Anglo-Norman manor developed not from a society based on serfdom but from a free village community. His most ambitious work, Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence (1920–22), was incomplete at…

  • Villejuif (France)

    Villejuif, town, Val-de-Marne département, Paris région, north-central France, a southern suburb of Paris. It has a psychiatric hospital and a cancer research institute. Glass, sheet metal, and aircraft parts are manufactured there. Pop. (1999) 47,384; (2014 est.)

  • Villèle, Jean-Baptiste-Guillaume-Joseph, comte de (French politician)

    Joseph, count de Villèle, French conservative politician and prime minister during the reign of Charles X. Villèle was educated for the navy, made his first voyage in July 1789, and served in the West and East Indies. In 1807 he returned to France after having amassed a considerable fortune during

  • Villèle, Joseph, comte de (French politician)

    Joseph, count de Villèle, French conservative politician and prime minister during the reign of Charles X. Villèle was educated for the navy, made his first voyage in July 1789, and served in the West and East Indies. In 1807 he returned to France after having amassed a considerable fortune during

  • Villella, Edward (American dancer)

    Edward Villella, American ballet dancer who was the founding artistic director (1986–2012) of the Miami City Ballet. As a dancer, he was one of the principal performers of the New York City Ballet, where he was noted for his powerful technique, particularly his soaring leaps and jumps. Villella

  • Villemaire, Yolande (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: …"A Voice for Odile"]), and Yolande Villemaire (La Vie en prose [1980; “Life in Prose”]). In her utopian novel L’Euguélionne (1976; The Euguelion), Louky Bersianik (pseudonym of Lucile Durand) used the conventions of the fantastic to conjure up alternatives to the existing social structure and verbal discourse, and in Tryptique…

  • Villemarqué, Théodore Hersart de La (French editor)

    Barzaz Breiz: …literature of Breton peasants, by Théodore Hersart de La Villemarqué and was published in 1839. In the 1870s it was demonstrated that Barzaz Breiz was not an anthology of Breton folk poetry but rather a mixture of old poems, chiefly love songs and ballads, that were rearranged by the editor…

  • Villemin, Jean Antoine (French physician)

    Jean Antoine Villemin, French physician who proved tuberculosis to be an infectious disease, transmitted by contact from humans to animals and from one animal to another. Villemin studied at Bruyères and at the military medical school at Strasbourg, qualifying as an army doctor in 1853. He was sent

  • Villena (Spain)

    Villena, city, Alicante provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, southeastern Spain. It lies about 45 miles (70 km) northeast of Murcia. Dating from Roman times, Villena was later part of the Moorish kingdom of Valencia and was taken by the Christians in

  • Villena, Juan Pacheco, marqués de (Spanish courtier)

    Henry IV: …the quarrels of his favourites, Juan Pacheco, marqués de Villena, and Beltran de la Cueva, and their inability to maintain order.

  • Villena, Luis Antonio de (Spanish poet)

    Spanish literature: Poetry: …pensamiento (“poetry of thought”); and Luis Antonio de Villena, an outspoken representative of Spain’s gay revolution. Prominent women poets during the closing decades of the 20th century include María Victoria Atencia, known for poetry inspired by domestic situations, for her cultivation of the themes of art, music, and painting, and…

  • villenage (feudalism)

    feudal land tenure: …type of unfree tenancy was villenage, initially a modified form of servitude. Whereas the mark of free tenants was that their services were always predetermined, in unfree tenure they were not; the unfree tenant never knew what he might be called to do for his lord. Although at first the…

  • villenagium (feudalism)

    feudal land tenure: …type of unfree tenancy was villenage, initially a modified form of servitude. Whereas the mark of free tenants was that their services were always predetermined, in unfree tenure they were not; the unfree tenant never knew what he might be called to do for his lord. Although at first the…

  • Villeneuve, Jacques (Canadian race-car driver)

    Jacques Villeneuve, Canadian race-car driver who in 1995 became the first Canadian to win the Indianapolis 500 and the youngest winner of the IndyCar championship. Villeneuve was the son of Gilles Villeneuve and the nephew of Jacques Villeneuve, both Canadian race-car drivers. He spent much of his

  • Villeneuve, Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de (French admiral)

    Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve, French admiral who commanded the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805). Belonging to a noble family, he entered the French Royal Navy and received rapid promotion, being named post captain in 1793 and rear admiral in 1796. He commanded

  • Villeneuve-Saint-Georges (town, France)

    Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, town, a southeastern suburb of Paris, Val-de-Marne département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. It is situated at the confluence of the Seine and Yerres rivers. The 17th-century chateau de Beauregard is a major attraction. Villeneuve-Saint-Georges has

  • Villepreux, Jeanne (French-born naturalist)

    Jeanne Villepreux-Power, French-born naturalist best known as the inventor of the aquarium and for her research on the paper nautilus Argonauta argo, a cephalopod that resembles members of the genus Octopus in most respects. Villepreux-Power was the daughter of a shoemaker. She moved to Paris at

  • Villepreux-Power, Jeanne (French-born naturalist)

    Jeanne Villepreux-Power, French-born naturalist best known as the inventor of the aquarium and for her research on the paper nautilus Argonauta argo, a cephalopod that resembles members of the genus Octopus in most respects. Villepreux-Power was the daughter of a shoemaker. She moved to Paris at

  • Villeroi, Fran?ois de Neufville, duc de (French marshal)

    Fran?ois de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French courtier, a lifelong favourite of King Louis XIV, who became marshal of France in 1693. His ducal father, Nicolas de Neufville, had been governor (educational supervisor) of the infant Louis XIV and marshal of France from 1646. Fran?ois is remembered

  • Villeroy, Fran?ois de Neufville, duc de (French marshal)

    Fran?ois de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French courtier, a lifelong favourite of King Louis XIV, who became marshal of France in 1693. His ducal father, Nicolas de Neufville, had been governor (educational supervisor) of the infant Louis XIV and marshal of France from 1646. Fran?ois is remembered

  • Villers-Cotterêts, Edict of (France [1539])

    French language: History: …legal reform known as the Edict of Villers-Cotterêts (1539), however, established Francien as the only official language (as opposed to both Latin and other dialects) after it proved to be the most popular written form. From then on, standard French began to replace local dialects, which were officially discouraged, though…

  • Villes tentaculaires, Les (work by Verhaeren)

    émile Verhaeren: …illusoires (“The Illusory Villages”) and Les Villes tentaculaires (“The Tentacular Cities”). His more intimate Les Heures claires (1896; The Sunlit Hours) is an avowal of his love for his wife; it led to the series of his major works, among which the most outstanding are Les Visages de la vie…

  • Villette (novel by Bront?)

    Villette, novel by Charlotte Bront?, published in three volumes in 1853. Based on Bront?’s own experiences in Brussels (the “Villette” of the title), this tale of a poor young woman’s emotional trial-by-fire while teaching in a girl’s school in Belgium is one of the author’s most complex books, a

  • Villeurbanne (France)

    Villeurbanne, city, a suburb of Lyon, Rh?ne département, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes région, east-central France. Villeurbanne forms the eastern part of the metropolitan agglomeration of Lyon. It is located on the right bank of the Rh?ne River. The first skyscrapers in France were built there in the

  • villi (anatomy)

    Villus, in anatomy any of the small, slender, vascular projections that increase the surface area of a membrane. Important villous membranes include the placenta and the mucous-membrane coating of the small intestine. The villi of the small intestine project into the intestinal cavity, greatly

  • Villi, Le (opera by Puccini)

    Giacomo Puccini: Early life and marriage: …the same year, he entered Le villi in a competition for one-act operas. The judges did not think Le villi worthy of consideration, but a group of friends, led by the composer-librettist Arrigo Boito, subsidized its production, and its premiere took place with immense success at Milan’s Verme Theatre on…

  • Villia annalis, lex (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: Citizenship and politics in the middle republic: …consulship, and in 180 the lex Villia annalis (Villian law on minimum ages) set minimum ages for senatorial magistrates and required a two-year interval between offices. The consulship (two elected to it per year) could be held from age 42, the praetorship (six per year) from age 39, and the…

  • Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, Auguste, comte de (French author)

    Auguste, comte de Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, French poet, dramatist, and short-story writer whose work reflects a revolt against naturalism and a combination of Romantic idealism and cruel sensuality. His hatred of the mediocrity of a materialistic age and his compelling personality made a

  • Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, Auguste-Jean-Marie-Mathias-Philippe, comte de (French author)

    Auguste, comte de Villiers de L’Isle-Adam, French poet, dramatist, and short-story writer whose work reflects a revolt against naturalism and a combination of Romantic idealism and cruel sensuality. His hatred of the mediocrity of a materialistic age and his compelling personality made a

  • Villiers, George (English politician)

    George Villiers, 2nd duke of Buckingham, English politician, a leading member of King Charles II’s inner circle of ministers known as the Cabal. Although he was brilliant and colourful, Buckingham’s pleasure-seeking, capricious personality prevented him from exercising a decisive influence in King

  • Villiers, George William Frederick (British statesman)

    George William Frederick Villiers, 4th earl of Clarendon, British foreign secretary under four prime ministers at various times from 1853, including the Crimean War period; he was known as “the great Lord Clarendon.” After serving as a customs commissioner in Dublin and Paris, Villiers was British

  • Villiers, Gérard de (French writer)

    Gérard de Villiers, (Gérard Jacques Marie Brice Adam de Villiers), French pulp-fiction writer (born Dec. 8, 1929, Paris, France—died Oct. 31, 2013, Paris), penned 200 spy thrillers, over a period of nearly five decades (1965–2013), in the SAS series, so-called because of the codename Son Altesse

  • Villiers, Gérard Jacques Marie Brice Adam de (French writer)

    Gérard de Villiers, (Gérard Jacques Marie Brice Adam de Villiers), French pulp-fiction writer (born Dec. 8, 1929, Paris, France—died Oct. 31, 2013, Paris), penned 200 spy thrillers, over a period of nearly five decades (1965–2013), in the SAS series, so-called because of the codename Son Altesse

  • Villiers, Sir George (English statesman)

    George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, royal favourite and statesman who virtually ruled England during the last years of King James I and the first years of the reign of Charles I. Buckingham was extremely unpopular, and the failure of his aggressive, erratic foreign policy increased the

  • Villmanstrand (Finland)

    Lappeenranta, city, southeastern Finland. Lappeenranta lies at the southern end of Lake Saimaa, northeast of Kotka. It was a major trade centre during the Middle Ages, with a municipal charter granted by Per Brahe, the Swedish governor-general of Finland, in 1649. A border fortress and the

  • Villon, Fran?ois (French poet)

    Fran?ois Villon, one of the greatest French lyric poets. He was known for his life of criminal excess, spending much time in prison or in banishment from medieval Paris. His chief works include Le Lais (Le Petit Testament), Le Grand Testament, and various ballades, chansons, and rondeaux. Villon’s

  • Villon, Jacques (French painter)

    Jacques Villon, French painter and printmaker who was involved in the Cubist movement; later he worked in realistic and abstract styles. Villon was the brother of the artists Suzanne Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Marcel Duchamp. In 1894 he went to Paris to study law, but, once there, he

  • Villoresi, Luigi (Italian race-car driver)

    Gigi Villoresi, Italian race-car driver for Maserati, Ferrari, and Lancia teams during the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s who was considered the most elegant racer of his time (b. May 16, 1909--d. Aug. 24,

  • villota (song)

    Villota, type of 16th-century Italian secular song similar to the villanella but having its origins in folk music. The villota has no structural uniformity and usually weaves a popular or street song into its textual and musical fabric. Three features characterize the villota and reveal its utility

  • villote (song)

    Villota, type of 16th-century Italian secular song similar to the villanella but having its origins in folk music. The villota has no structural uniformity and usually weaves a popular or street song into its textual and musical fabric. Three features characterize the villota and reveal its utility

  • villous adenoma (polyp)

    digestive system disease: Polyps: …form of polyp is the villous adenoma, often a slowly growing, fernlike structure that spreads along the surface of the colon. It can recur after being locally resected, or it can develop into a cancer.

  • Villum, K. (Norwegian writer)

    Kjartan Fl?gstad, Norwegian poet, novelist, and essayist best known for his novel Dalen Portland (1977; “Portland Valley”; Eng. trans. Dollar Road). Before he became a successful writer, Fl?gstad was a blue-collar worker and a sailor. He remained sympathetic to the working class in his writings,

  • villus (anatomy)

    Villus, in anatomy any of the small, slender, vascular projections that increase the surface area of a membrane. Important villous membranes include the placenta and the mucous-membrane coating of the small intestine. The villi of the small intestine project into the intestinal cavity, greatly

  • Vilna (national capital, Lithuania)

    Vilnius, city, capital of Lithuania, at the confluence of the Neris (Russian Viliya) and Vilnia rivers. A settlement existed on the site in the 10th century, and the first documentary reference to it dates from 1128. In 1323 the town became capital of Lithuania under Grand Duke Gediminas; it was

  • Vilna Gaon (Lithuanian-Jewish scholar)

    Elijah ben Solomon, the gaon (“excellency”) of Vilna and the outstanding authority in Jewish religious and cultural life in 18th-century Lithuania. Born into a long line of scholars, Elijah traveled among the Jewish communities of Poland and Germany in 1740–45 and then settled in Vilna, which was

  • Vilner, Meir (Lithuanian-Israeli politician)

    Meir Vilner, (Meir Vilner-Kovner; Ber Kovner), Lithanian-born Israeli politician (born Oct. 23, 1918, Vilnius, Lithuania—died June 5, 2003, Tel Aviv, Israel), was a member of the Israeli Knesset (parliament) for nearly 42 years (1949–90), secretary-general (1965–90) and chairman (1990–93) of the C

  • Vilner-Kovner, Meir (Lithuanian-Israeli politician)

    Meir Vilner, (Meir Vilner-Kovner; Ber Kovner), Lithanian-born Israeli politician (born Oct. 23, 1918, Vilnius, Lithuania—died June 5, 2003, Tel Aviv, Israel), was a member of the Israeli Knesset (parliament) for nearly 42 years (1949–90), secretary-general (1965–90) and chairman (1990–93) of the C

  • Vilnius (national capital, Lithuania)

    Vilnius, city, capital of Lithuania, at the confluence of the Neris (Russian Viliya) and Vilnia rivers. A settlement existed on the site in the 10th century, and the first documentary reference to it dates from 1128. In 1323 the town became capital of Lithuania under Grand Duke Gediminas; it was

  • Vilnius dispute (European history)

    Vilnius dispute, post-World War I conflict between Poland and Lithuania over possession of the city of Vilnius (Wilno) and its surrounding region. Although the new Lithuanian government established itself at Vilnius in late 1918, it evacuated the city when Soviet forces moved in on January 5, 1919.

  • Vilnius, Treaty of (Poland-Lithuania [1401])

    W?adys?aw II Jagie??o: Early life: …this subsided when, by the Treaty of Vilnius in 1401, W?adys?aw recognized Vytautas as supreme duke of Lithuania on the condition that Poland and Lithuania be indissolubly united by a common foreign policy.

  • Vilnius, Union of (Polish history)

    Sigismund II Augustus: …Sigismund II Augustus concluded the Union of Wilno (Vilnius) in 1561: thereby the Livonian lands, north of the Dvina (Daugava) River, were incorporated directly into Lithuania, while Courland, south of the Dvina, became a secular duchy and Polish fief.

  • Vilnyus (national capital, Lithuania)

    Vilnius, city, capital of Lithuania, at the confluence of the Neris (Russian Viliya) and Vilnia rivers. A settlement existed on the site in the 10th century, and the first documentary reference to it dates from 1128. In 1323 the town became capital of Lithuania under Grand Duke Gediminas; it was

  • Vilokan (religion)

    Vilokan, the mythological abode of the Vodou spirits (lwas). Vodou, an African-derived religion, was taken to Haiti during the colonization period (1492–1804) and has maintained many West African religious traditions; among them are those of Benin (formerly Dahomey). Vodouists believe that Vilokan

  • Vilyuy River (river, Russia)

    Vilyuy River, river in east-central Siberia, flowing mainly through Sakha (Yakutiya) in eastern Russia. The longest tributary of the Lena, it has a length of 1,647 miles (2,650 km) and a drainage basin of about 190,000 square miles (491,000 square km). The Vilyuy River rises on the Central Siberian

  • VIM (metallurgy)

    steel: Induction melting: This is called vacuum induction melting, or VIM. When liquid steel is placed in a vacuum, removal of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen takes place, generating a boil in the crucible. In many cases, the liquid steel is cast directly from the furnace into ingot molds that are placed…

  • Vīma (?aka ruler)

    India: Central Asian rulers: …was succeeded by his son Vima, after whom came Kanishka, the most powerful among the Kushan kings, as the dynasty came to be called. The date of Kanishka’s accession is disputed, ranging from 78 to 248. The generally accepted date of 78 is also the basis for an era presumably…

  • vimalā (Buddhism)

    bhūmi: …and will help others), (2) vimalā (“free from impurities”), (3) prabhākarī (“luminous” with the noble doctrine), (4) arci?matī (“brilliant,” the rays of his virtue consuming evil passions and ignorance), (5) sudurjayā (“hard to conquer”), (6) abhimukhī (“turning toward” both transmigration and nirvana), (7) dūra?gamā

  • Vimala Dharma Sūrya (king of Kandy)

    Sri Lanka: Kandy and its struggle with European powers: …died under suspicious circumstances, and Konnappu Bandara enthroned himself, proclaiming independence from the Portuguese and taking the regnal name of Vimala Dharma Surya. The demise of Sitawake after Rajasinha’s death left Kandy the only independent Sinhalese kingdom.

  • Vimala Vasahi (temple, Abu, India)

    Abu: The earlier Vimala Vasahi temple, built about 1031, is simpler and bolder in style. Abu was the headquarters of the Rajputana Agency during the British rule of India; it now has a police-training college. Guru Peak on Mount Abu (5,650 feet [1,722 metres]) is the highest point…

  • Vimalakīrti (Indian sage)

    Bunsei: …of the semilegendary Indian sage Vimalakīrti, who is called Yuima Koji by the Japanese (1457; in the Yamato Bunkakan in Nara); and a boldly executed ink drawing of the legendary three monks from a Buddhist tale, “The Laughers of Tiger Valley.” From the late 17th century until the second half…

  • Vimalakīrti Sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Vimalakīrti Sūtra, Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra. It dates from no later than the 3rd century ce, based on its earliest Chinese translations, and most likely from the 1st or 2nd centuries ce. In the sūtra the layman and householder Vimalakīrti, who is also, significantly, a model bodhisattva, instructs

  • Vimalakīrtinirde?a Sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Vimalakīrti Sūtra, Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra. It dates from no later than the 3rd century ce, based on its earliest Chinese translations, and most likely from the 1st or 2nd centuries ce. In the sūtra the layman and householder Vimalakīrti, who is also, significantly, a model bodhisattva, instructs

  • Vimanavatthu (Buddhist text)

    Khuddaka Nikaya: Vimanavatthu (“Stories of Celestial Mansions”), 85 poems on the happiness of persons reborn in heavenly realms and on the worthy deeds that led to this reward.

  • Vimbuza Healing Dance (ritual dance)

    Zambia: Cultural institutions: …and other important occasions—and the Vimbuza Healing Dance were both designated UNESCO Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

  • Vimeur, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de (French general)

    Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, general who supported the American Revolution by commanding French forces that helped defeat the British at Yorktown, Va. (1781). Rochambeau was originally trained for the church but then entered a cavalry regiment. He fought in the War of the

  • Viminal (hill, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Viminal and Quirinal: Like much of the Esquiline, the adjacent Viminal and Quirinal hills lie in the heart of modern Rome. Heavily built upon and sclerotic with traffic, the former seems almost flattened under the Ministry of the Interior. The ancient Baths of Diocletian (c.…

  • Vin herbé, Le (work by Martin)

    Frank Martin: …several works, including the oratorio Le Vin herbé (performed 1942). His other major works include the opera Der Sturm (1956; “The Tempest”), the oratorio Golgotha (1949), and Requiem (1973). He also produced a large quantity of instrumental music, including orchestral works and chamber music. Perhaps his best-known work is Petite…

  • vina (musical instrument)

    Vina, any of several stringed musical instruments of India, including arched harps (before 1000 ce), stick zithers, and lutes. The North Indian version, the bin, is used in classical Hindustani music. Classified as a stick zither, it is about 4 feet (1.2 metres) in length, having a large resonating

  • Vi?a del Mar (Chile)

    Vi?a del Mar, city and Pacific Ocean resort, central Chile. It is located just northeast of Valparaíso. A large municipal gaming casino, beaches, and a pleasant summer climate attract substantial numbers of domestic and foreign vacationers. Hotels, exclusive clubs, a racecourse, public gardens and

  • vina saule (Baltic religion)

    Baltic religion: Cosmology: …saule (literally “this sun”) and vi?a saule (literally “the other sun”). The metaphor ?ī saule symbolizes ordinary everyday human life, while vi?a saule indicates the invisible world where the sun goes at night, which is also the abode of the dead.

  • vinaigrette (salad dressing)

    vinegar: …becomes a classic cold sauce—vinaigrette—used as a dressing on vegetable salads and served as a sauce with cold cooked vegetables, meats, and fish. Vinegar is also a common ingredient in marinades and is widely used in the pickling of cucumbers and other vegetables.

  • vinaigrette (decorative article)

    Vinaigrette, small metal perfume container usually made of gold or silver and containing a pierced metal tray beneath which was placed a piece of sponge soaked in an aromatic substance such as vinegar combined with lavender. Vinaigrettes were made as boxes and many more novel forms from the late

  • vinal (plant)

    Gran Chaco: Plant life: …species, among which the notorious vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) was declared a national plague in Argentina because its thorns, up to a foot in length, created a livestock hazard in the agricultural lands it was invading.

  • Vinales valley (valley, Pinar del Rio, Cuba)

    Cuba: Plant and animal life: …of Juventud Island, and the Vi?ales valley. Desembarco del Granma National Park features a series of verdant limestone terraces that range from 1,180 feet (360 metres) above sea level to 590 feet (180 metres) below. Both Desembarco del Granma and Vi?ales were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1999.

  • Vinaver, Michel (French playwright)

    French literature: Drama: …subsidies supported the work of Michel Vinaver and Bernard-Marie Koltès, whose plays are concerned with individuals struggling with the institutional discourses—family, law, politics—of which contemporary consumer society and their own identities are woven. The quick exchanges of Vinaver’s play L’émission de télévision (1990; The Television Programme, published in Plays) express…

  • Vinay, Ramón (Chilean opera singer)

    Ramón Vinay, Chilean opera singer (born Aug. 31, 1912, Chillán, Chile—died Jan. 4, 1996, Puebla, Mexico), achieved his greatest recognition as a heroic tenor, most notably in the title role in Giuseppe Verdi’s Otello. He performed at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera for 16 seasons (1946-61), at t

  • vinaya (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: The Pali canon (Tipitaka): …monastic life (Pali and Sanskrit: Vinaya), to the discourses of the Buddha (Pali: Sutta), and subsequently to the interest in scholasticism (Pali: Abhidhamma).

  • Vinaya Pi?aka (Buddhist canon)

    Vinaya Pi?aka, (Pāli and Sanskrit: “Basket of Discipline”), the oldest and smallest of the three sections of the Buddhist canonical Tipi?aka (“Triple Basket”) and the one that regulates monastic life and the daily affairs of monks and nuns according to rules attributed to the Buddha. It varies less

  • vinblastine (drug)

    drug: Anticancer drugs: Vinblastine and vincristine (vinca alkaloids), derived from the periwinkle plant, along with etoposide, act primarily to stop spindle formation within the dividing cell during DNA replication and cell division. These drugs are important agents in the treatment of leukemias, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. Etoposide, a…

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
免费a级毛片_成 人影片 免费观看网站_骚虎