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  • Vienna coup (bridge)

    bridge: The Vienna coup: The characteristic of the Vienna coup is that a high card must be played early, apparently establishing a card in an opponent’s hand but actually subjecting him to a squeeze that could not have been effected had the high card remained unplayed.

  • Vienna Court Opera (opera house, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna State Opera, theatre in Vienna, Austria, that is one of the world’s leading opera houses, known especially for performances of works by Richard Wagner, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Richard Strauss. The original theatre, located on the Ringstrasse, was built in 1869 to house the expanded

  • Vienna General Hospital

    history of Europe: Poverty: In 1785 the Vienna General Hospital had 2,000 beds. There was provision for deprived children of all sorts. Graduated charges and free medical care for paupers were among features of a policy that represented the utilitarian spirit at its most humane.

  • Vienna Genesis (Byzantine manuscript)
  • Vienna Group (literary group)

    concrete poetry: The Vienna Group of Hans Carl Artmann, Gerhard Rühm, and Konrad Bayer also promoted concrete poetry, as did Ernst Jandl and Friederike Mayr?cker. The movement drew inspiration from Dada, Surrealism, and other nonrational 20th-century movements. Concrete poetry has an extreme visual bias and in this way…

  • Vienna Holding (Austrian corporation)

    Vienna: Government: …operates a major business, the Vienna Holding, a combination of state and private enterprise. Its firms include low-cost restaurants, a major publishing house, an insurance company, a cold-storage depot, shopping centres, cinemas, and the large, multifunctional Stadthalle (“City Hall”), with a seating capacity of 16,000, for sporting events, concerts, dances,…

  • Vienna International Centre (buildings, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna: Evolution of the modern city: …the modern buildings of the Vienna International Centre, or UNO-City, include the offices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and other UN agencies.

  • Vienna International Exhibition

    Austria: Domestic affairs, 1867–73: The opening of the Vienna International Exhibition of 1873 was seen as a manifestation of the material progress and economic achievements of the Habsburg monarchy. The so-called Gründerjahre, or years of expansive commercial enterprise during the late 1860s and early 1870s, however, were characterized not only by railroad and…

  • Vienna Museum of Natural History (museum, Vienna, Austria)

    Stephan Endlicher: …he became curator of the Vienna Museum of Natural History, to which he would eventually donate his herbarium of 30,000 specimens. While reorganizing the museum’s botanical collections, he wrote the Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita (1836–40; “Plant Genera Arranged According to a Natural Order”), a system of classification in…

  • Vienna Philharmonic (Austrian orchestra)

    Claudio Abbado: …and principal conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (from 1971), the London Symphony Orchestra (1979–88), and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (from 1989).

  • Vienna porcelain

    Vienna porcelain, ceramic ware made at the Vienna factory in Austria between 1719 and 1864. Claudius Innocentius du Paquier (d. 1751), a Dutchman, began making porcelain there with the help of two workmen from Meissen in Germany. In 1744 he sold the enterprise to the Austrian state. After a

  • Vienna Psychoanalytical Society (psychological organization)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: In 1902 the Psychological Wednesday Circle began to gather in Freud’s waiting room with a number of future luminaries in the psychoanalytic movements in attendance. Alfred Adler and Wilhelm Stekel were often joined by guests such as Sándor Ferenczi, Carl Gustav Jung, Otto Rank, Ernest Jones, Max Eitingon,…

  • Vienna school (ethnology)

    totemism: Durkheim to Radcliffe-Brown: The first theoretician of the Vienna school of ethnology, Fritz Graebner, attempted to explain the forms of both individual totemism and group totemism and designated them as a moderately creedal or semireligious complex of ideas according to which individual members or subgroups of a society are thought to be in…

  • Vienna Secession (Austrian art group)

    Western architecture: Art Nouveau: …his classicism and formed the Sezessionists. Joseph Olbrich joined the art colony at Darmstadt, in Germany, where his houses and exhibition gallery of about 1905 were boxlike, severe buildings. Josef Hoffmann left Wagner to found the Wiener Werkst?tte, an Austrian equivalent of the English Arts and Crafts Movement; his best

  • Vienna Sezession (Austrian art group)

    Western architecture: Art Nouveau: …his classicism and formed the Sezessionists. Joseph Olbrich joined the art colony at Darmstadt, in Germany, where his houses and exhibition gallery of about 1905 were boxlike, severe buildings. Josef Hoffmann left Wagner to found the Wiener Werkst?tte, an Austrian equivalent of the English Arts and Crafts Movement; his best

  • Vienna State Opera (opera house, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna State Opera, theatre in Vienna, Austria, that is one of the world’s leading opera houses, known especially for performances of works by Richard Wagner, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Richard Strauss. The original theatre, located on the Ringstrasse, was built in 1869 to house the expanded

  • Vienna steak (food)

    Hamburger, ground beef. The term is applied variously to (1) a patty of ground beef, sometimes called hamburg steak, Salisbury steak, or Vienna steak, (2) a sandwich consisting of a patty of beef served within a split bread roll, with various garnishes, or (3) the ground beef itself, which is used

  • Vienna Stock Exchange (financial institution, Austria)

    Austria: Finance: The Vienna Stock Exchange (Wiener B?rse), founded in 1771 by Empress Maria Theresa, is one of the oldest such institutions in Europe. Shares of both Austrian and foreign companies are traded there.

  • Vienna summit (1961)

    20th-century international relations: Policies of the Kennedy administration: … held a summit meeting in Vienna in June 1961. With Berlin and the Third World uppermost in his mind, Kennedy proposed that neither superpower attempt to upset the existing balance of power in any region where the other was already involved. Khrushchev evidently considered the young president to be weak…

  • Vienna Union

    Labour and Socialist International: …at Vienna and formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties, also known as the Vienna Union, with the object of preparing the ground for an all-embracing International. In 1922 delegates from the Second and Third Internationals and the Vienna Union met in Berlin to explore the conditions of common…

  • Vienna Woods (forest, Austria)

    Klosterneuburg: …the north edge of the Vienna Woods (Wienerwald), just northwest of Vienna. It was originally the site of a Roman fortress (Asturis). Later, a settlement called Neuburg developed around a castle on the Leopoldsberg and an Augustinian abbey, both of which were founded in about 1100 by the Babenberg margrave…

  • Vienna Workshops (Austrian enterprise for crafts and design)

    Wiener Werkst?tte, cooperative enterprise for crafts and design founded in Vienna in 1903. Inspired by William Morris and the English Arts and Crafts Movement, it was founded by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffmann with the goal of restoring the values of handcraftsmanship to an industrial society in

  • Vienna, Congress of (European history)

    Congress of Vienna, assembly in 1814–15 that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. It began in September 1814, five months after Napoleon I’s first abdication and completed its “Final Act” in June 1815, shortly before the Waterloo campaign and the final defeat of Napoleon. The settlement

  • Vienna, Siege of (Europe [1529])

    Siege of Vienna, (Sep-Oct 1529). In 1529 the Ottoman Empire made a determined effort to capture Vienna, the capital of the Hapsburg Austrian Empire. The failure to take Vienna marked the end of Turkish expansion into Europe and was followed by the diversion of Ottoman effort toward Asia and the

  • Vienna, Siege of (Europe [1683])

    Siege of Vienna, (July 17–Sept. 12, 1683), expedition by the Turks against the Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Leopold I that resulted in their defeat by a combined force led by John III Sobieski of Poland. The siege marked the beginning of the end of Turkish domination in eastern Europe. The leader of

  • Vienna, Treaty of (European history)

    Austria: Contest for the Babenberg heritage: Otakar intervened and in the Treaty of Vienna (1260) took over Steiermark as well. The state of anarchy that prevailed in Germany during this period proved advantageous to Otakar, who was granted Austria and Steiermark in fief from Richard, earl of Cornwall, the titular German king. The grant, however, was…

  • Vienna, University of (university, Vienna, Austria)

    University of Vienna, state-financed coeducational institution for higher learning at Vienna. Founded in 1365, it is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. The university was first chartered, following the model of the University of Paris, by the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV of Austria, as

  • Vienne (France)

    Vienne, town, Isère département, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes région, southeastern France. It lies along the Rh?ne River where the latter is joined by the Gère River, about 20 miles (32 km) south of Lyon. In ancient times Vienne was the capital of the Celtic tribe known as the Allobroges. It was conquered

  • Vienne (department, France)

    Poitou-Charentes: …encompassed the western départements of Vienne, Charente, Charente-Maritime, and Deux-Sèvres. In 2016 the Poitou-Charentes région was joined with the régions of Aquitaine and Limousin to form the new administrative entity of Nouvelle Aquitaine.

  • Vienne River (river, France)

    Vienne River, river, western France, 217 mi (350 km) in length, a left-bank tributary of the Loire. Rising on the Plateau de Millevaches, the Vienne winds through the agricultural regions of five départements. It flows west-northwest into the Haute-Vienne département, receiving the Maulde and

  • Vienne River Bridge (bridge, Chatellerault, France)

    bridge: Early bridges: Hennebique’s Vienne River Bridge at Chatellerault, France, built in 1899, was the longest-spanning reinforced arch bridge of the 19th century. Built low to the river—typical of many reinforced-concrete bridges whose goal of safe passage across a small river is not affected by heavy boat traffic—the Chatellerault…

  • Vienne, Council of (French history)

    Council of Vienne, 15th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church (1311–12), convoked by Pope Clement V at the insistence of Philip IV of France, who demanded the posthumous trial of Pope Boniface VIII and the suppression of the Knights Templars, one of the great military religious orders

  • Viennese Actionism (art movement)

    Western painting: Body and performance art: …sobriety of Nauman’s performances, the Viennese Actionist group staged pseudo-Dionysian ceremonies in front of sizeable audiences. Frequently they staged mock-crucifixions or disemboweled animal cadavers in a form of ritualized catharsis.

  • Viennese waltz (dance)

    Johann Strauss I: …of the principal composers of Viennese waltzes.

  • Vient de para?tre (work by Bourdet)

    édouard Bourdet: With Vient de para?tre (1928; “Just Appeared”), a satire on the literary world, Bourdet established a formula for the series of satirical comedies that he produced between the world wars. Notable plays in the series are Le Sexe faible (1931; The Sex Fable) and Les Temps…

  • Vientiane (national capital, Laos)

    Vientiane, largest city and capital of Laos, situated on a plain just northeast of the Mekong River. The city’s central river port location in a country relying heavily on its rivers for transportation and its surrounding hinterland of intensive rice cultivation have made Vientiane the major

  • Vientiane Agreement (1973, Laos)

    Laos: Laos after the Geneva Conference, 1954–75: …the Laotian factions signed the Vientiane Agreement, which provided again for a cease-fire and for yet another coalition government composed of factions from the left and right, presided over by Souvanna Phouma. As political control in Vietnam tipped toward the communists following the American departure from that country, the Pathet…

  • Vientiane, kingdom of (historical state, Laos)

    Thailand: The early Chakri kings and a resurgent Siam: …young Lao ruler of the kingdom of Vien Chan (Vientiane). In 1827 Siamese armies razed and plundered Vientiane; thousands of Lao were taken prisoner and deported to central Siam.

  • Vieques Island (island, Puerto Rico)

    Vieques Island, island and municipio (municipality), Puerto Rico. It lies 13 miles (21 km) east of the main island, fronting to the south on the Caribbean Sea and north on Vieques Sound, which connects the Caribbean with the Atlantic Ocean. Composed mostly of volcanic and granite intrusives, the

  • Vier Bücher vom wahren Christentum (work by Arndt)

    Johann Arndt: …and Thomas à Kempis, is Vier Bücher vom wahren Christentum (1605–09; “Four Books on True Christianity”). Translated into most European languages and widely distributed in Arndt’s time, it served as the foundation of many devotional books, both Roman Catholic and Protestant. Its publication aroused strong controversy among Lutherans. It was…

  • Vier ernste Ges?nge (work by Brahms)

    Johannes Brahms: Final years: …his Vier ernste Ges?nge (Four Serious Songs), for bass voice and piano, on texts from both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, a pessimistic work dealing with the vanity of all earthly things and welcoming death as the healer of pain and weariness. The conception of this work…

  • Viereck, Peter Robert Edwin (American poet, historian, and theorist)

    Peter Robert Edwin Viereck, American poet, historian, and theorist (born Aug. 5, 1916, New York, N.Y.—died May 13, 2006, South Hadley, Mass.), helped usher in the mid-20th-century conservative movement as the author of Conservatism Revisited: The Revolt Against Revolt, 1815–1949 (1949; rev. ed., 1

  • vierge (chess)

    chess: Queen: Each player has one queen, which combines the powers of the rook and bishop and is thus the most mobile and powerful piece. The White queen begins at d1, the Black queen at d8.

  • Vierge Dorée, Master of the (French artist)

    Western sculpture: High Gothic: …Master at Reims and the Master of the Vierge Dorée at Amiens both adopted a drapery style that, in various forms, became extremely common for the next century or more; both introduced into their figures a sort of mannered daintiness that became popular. These features appear in an exaggerated form…

  • Vierne, Louis (musician)

    Charles-Marie Widor: …turn of the century, including Louis Vierne and Marcel Dupré. Albert Schweitzer studied organ under him, and Arthur Honegger and Darius Milhaud studied composition.

  • Viertel, Peter (German-born novelist and screenwriter)

    Peter Viertel, German-born novelist and screenwriter (born Nov. 16, 1920, Dresden, Ger.—died Nov. 4, 2007, Marbella, Spain), was wholly or partly responsible for the scripts of such films as Alfred Hitchcock’s Saboteur (1942); The African Queen (1951), for which he wrote the dialogue; White Hunter,

  • Viertel-jahrsschrift für Musikwissen-schaft (German magazine)

    Guido Adler: Chrysander, Adler founded the Viertel-jahrsschrift für Musikwissenschaft (“Quarterly of Musicology”) in 1884. The following year he was appointed professor of the history of music at the German University at Prague.

  • Vierwaldst?tter See (lake, Switzerland)

    Lake Lucerne, principal lake of central Switzerland, surrounded by the cantons of Lucerne, Nidwalden, Uri, and Schwyz. The lake is named after the city of Lucerne, which lies at its western end. The lake is most beautifully situated between steep limestone mountains, the best-known being the Rigi

  • Vierzehnheiligen, church of (church, Germany)

    Balthasar Neumann: …masterpiece, the pilgrimage church at Vierzehnheiligen (1743–53), as well as the pilgrimage church known as the K?ppele (1740–52) near Würzburg and the abbey church at Neresheim (1747–53).

  • Vierzig Jahre (work by Holtei)

    Karl von Holtei: …vividly described in his autobiography, Vierzig Jahre (1843–50; “Forty Years”). Two of his best plays, Der Alte Freiherr (1825; “The Old Baron”) and Lenore (1829), a dramatization of Gottfried August Bürger’s poem, achieved great popularity. Also successful were his Schlesische Gedichte (1830; “Silesian Poems”), written in his native dialect. He…

  • vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh, Die (novel by Werfel)

    Franz Werfel: …Tage des Musa Dagh (1933; The Forty Days of Musa Dagh), an epic novel in which Armenian villagers resist Turkish forces until rescued by the French.

  • Vierzon (France)

    Vierzon, city, Cher département, Centre région, central France. It lies along the Canal du Berry, at the confluence of the Cher and Yèvre rivers, northwest of Bourges. The city grew from a rail and industrial complex formed in 1938 from several small communes (Vierzon-Ville, Vierzon-Village,

  • Vies des hommes illustres Grecs et Romains, Les (translation by Amyot)

    Jacques Amyot: …translation of Plutarch’s Lives (Les Vies des hommes illustres Grecs et Romains, 1559), which became a major influence in shaping the Renaissance concept of the tragic hero.

  • Viet (people)

    Yue, aboriginal people of South China who in the 5th–4th century bce formed a powerful kingdom in present-day Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. The name Vietnam means “south of the Yue,” and some Chinese scholars consider the Vietnamese to be descendants of the

  • Viet Cong (Vietnamese military and political organization)

    Viet Cong (VC), the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). The name is said to have first been used by South Vietnamese Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem to belittle the rebels. Though beginning

  • Viet Minh (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)

    Viet Minh, organization that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule. The Viet Minh was formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. Although led primarily by communists, the Viet Minh operated as a national front organization open to persons of various political persuasions.

  • Viet Nam Cong San (Vietnamese military and political organization)

    Viet Cong (VC), the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). The name is said to have first been used by South Vietnamese Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem to belittle the rebels. Though beginning

  • Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)

    Viet Minh, organization that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule. The Viet Minh was formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. Although led primarily by communists, the Viet Minh operated as a national front organization open to persons of various political persuasions.

  • Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)

    Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD), the first large-scale revolutionary nationalist organization in Vietnam. Founded officially in 1927, the VNQDD was modeled after the revolutionary Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) of China. Its aim, like that of the Nationalist Party, was the establishment of a

  • Viet-Muong (people)

    Southeast Asian arts: The cultural setting of Southeast Asian arts: …Mon, the Khmer, and the Viet-Muong. The Mon were at one time dominant, but they lost their ethnic identity in the 18th century and became absorbed by the Burmese and the Tai; only a few thousand Mon are now found living near the Myanmar-Thailand border. The Khmer from the 9th…

  • Viet-Muong languages

    Viet-Muong languages, subbranch of the Vietic branch of the Mon-Khmer family of languages, itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Vietnamese, the most important language of the group and of the entire Mon-Khmer family, has a number of regional variants. Northern Vietnamese, centred in Hanoi, is

  • Viet-Nam: sociologie d’une guerre (work by Mus)

    Paul Mus: In his Viet-Nam: sociologie d’une guerre (1952; “Vietnam: Sociology of a War”), he tried to communicate his understanding of the Vietnamese to the French, who were still engaged in the French Indochina War. He strongly influenced the large group of young Southeast Asian scholars that emerged in…

  • Vieta, Franciscus (French mathematician)

    Fran?ois Viète, seigneur de la Bigotiere, mathematician who introduced the first systematic algebraic notation and contributed to the theory of equations. Viète, a Huguenot sympathizer, solved a complex cipher of more than 500 characters used by King Philip II of Spain in his war to defend Roman

  • Viète, Fran?ois, seigneur de la Bigotiere (French mathematician)

    Fran?ois Viète, seigneur de la Bigotiere, mathematician who introduced the first systematic algebraic notation and contributed to the theory of equations. Viète, a Huguenot sympathizer, solved a complex cipher of more than 500 characters used by King Philip II of Spain in his war to defend Roman

  • Vieth v. Jubelirer (law case)

    gerrymandering: In 2004, in Vieth v. Jubelirer, a plurality of the Court pointedly embraced what the Bandemer Court had declined to hold, on the grounds that “no judicially discernible and manageable standards for adjudicating political gerrymandering claims have emerged” since the Bandemer decision. Although siding with the plurality in…

  • Vieth von Golssenau, Arnold Friedrich (German novelist)

    Ludwig Renn, German novelist, best known for Krieg (1928; War), a novel based on his World War I battle experiences, the narrator and principal character of which was named Ludwig Renn. The stark simplicity of the novel emphasizes the uncompromising brutality of combat. Born a Saxon nobleman, Renn

  • Vieth-Müller horopter circle (psychology)

    human eye: Binocular vision: …be represented by the so-called Vieth-Müller circle. On this basis, the corresponding points are arranged with strict symmetry, and each pair projects to a single point in space on the horopter circle. Theoretically, then, all points on the circle passing through the fixation point, F, will be seen single, and…

  • Vietinghoff, Barbara Juliane von (Russian mystic)

    Barbara Juliane, baroness von Krüdener, mystic visionary who renounced a life of pleasure amid the Russian nobility and won as a convert Tsar Alexander I, through whom she influenced the making of the Holy Alliance of 1815. She was married to a Russian diplomat in 1782, but her life of amorous

  • Vietnam

    Vietnam, country occupying the eastern portion of mainland Southeast Asia. Tribal Viets inhabiting the Red River delta entered written history when China’s southward expansion reached them in the 3rd century bce. From that time onward, a dominant theme of Vietnam’s history has been interaction with

  • Vietnam Plays, The (plays by Rabe)

    David Rabe: …dramas were later collected in The Vietnam Plays (1993).

  • Vietnam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (Vietnamese political organization)

    Ho Chi Minh: Early life: …organizing them into the Vietnam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (“Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association”), which became famous under the name Thanh Nien. Almost all of its members had been exiled from Indochina because of their political beliefs and had gathered together in order to participate in the struggle…

  • Vietnam Veterans Against the War (American organization)

    John Kerry: …and a spokesperson for the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. In this role he gained national attention in 1971 when he testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The following year he ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House of Representatives and enlisted in the Naval Reserve. In 1976 he graduated…

  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial (monument, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Vietnam Veterans Memorial, national monument in Washington, D.C., honouring members of the U.S. armed forces who served and died in the Vietnam War (1955–75). The memorial, located near the western end of the Mall, is a black granite V-shaped wall inscribed with the names of the approximately

  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund (American non-profit organization)

    Vietnam Veterans Memorial: …nationwide competition sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, and her design was selected from the more than 1,400 submissions that were received. Lin’s minimal plan was in sharp contrast to the traditional format for a memorial, which usually included figurative heroic sculpture. The design aroused a great deal of…

  • Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (United States organization)

    International Campaign to Ban Landmines: …International, Mines Advisory Group, and Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation. The coalition addressed the failures of the 1980 Convention on Inhumane Weapons by seeking a total ban of land mines and increased funding for mine clearance and victim assistance. Their efforts led to the negotiation of the Mine Ban Treaty…

  • Vietnam War (1954–1975)

    Vietnam War, (1954–75), a protracted conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, known as the Viet Cong, against the government of South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. Called the “American War” in Vietnam (or, in full, the “War

  • Vietnam War POWs and MIAs

    On January 27, 1973, the Paris Peace Accords were signed, officially bringing to an end the American war in Vietnam. One of the prerequisites for and provisions of the accords was the return of all U.S. prisoners of war (POWs). On February 12 the first of 591 U.S. military and civilian POWs were

  • Vietnam War, The (documentary series by Burns)

    Ken Burns: The 18-hour series The Vietnam War (2017) was epic in its scope, including discussions on the origins of the conflict and its polarizing effect on Americans as well as interviews with both U.S. and Viet Cong soldiers. In 2018 Burns codirected The Mayo Clinic: Faith – Hope –…

  • Vietnam Women’s Memorial (monument, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Vietnam Veterans Memorial: In 1993 the Vietnam Women’s Memorial was unveiled a short distance from the wall. The bronze sculpture, depicting three women caring for an injured soldier, recognized the work of the more than 10,000 women who served in Vietnam.

  • Vietnam, Army of the Republic of (Vietnamese military force)

    Vietnam War: The Diem regime and the Viet Cong: …American training and weapons, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, usually called the ARVN, was in many ways ill-adapted to meet the insurgency of the Viet Cong. Higher-ranking officers, appointed on the basis of their family connections and political reliability, were often apathetic, incompetent, or corrupt—and sometimes all three.…

  • Vietnam, Associated State of (historical state, Vietnam)

    Vietnam: The First Indochina War: …Vietnam in 1949, proclaiming the Associated State of Vietnam, and appointed the former emperor Bao Dai as chief of state. Most nationalists, however, denounced these maneuvers, and leadership in the struggle for independence from the French remained with the Viet Minh.

  • Vietnam, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field (background) with a large yellow star in the centre. The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 2 to 3.Vietnam has long utilized ceremonies and symbols that originated in China, its northern neighbour. In recent centuries the emperors of Vietnam had banners of

  • Vietnam, history of

    Vietnam: History: Relatively little is known about the origins of the Vietnamese. They first appeared in history as the so-called “Lac” peoples, who lived in the Red River delta region, in what is now northern Vietnam. Some scholars have suggested that…

  • Vietnam, League for the Independence of (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)

    Viet Minh, organization that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule. The Viet Minh was formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. Although led primarily by communists, the Viet Minh operated as a national front organization open to persons of various political persuasions.

  • Vietnam, Socialist Republic of

    Vietnam, country occupying the eastern portion of mainland Southeast Asia. Tribal Viets inhabiting the Red River delta entered written history when China’s southward expansion reached them in the 3rd century bce. From that time onward, a dominant theme of Vietnam’s history has been interaction with

  • Vietnamese (people)

    Cambodia: Ethnic groups: The Vietnamese minority occupied a somewhat lower status than the Chinese, and most of them fled or were repatriated to Vietnam after 1970. In the 1980s, however, a large number of Vietnamese migrants, many of them former residents of Cambodia, settled in the country. Centuries of…

  • Vietnamese Communist Party (political party, Vietnam)

    Vietnam: Political process: …and 1992 constitutions institutionalized the Vietnamese Communist Party as the sole source of leadership for the state and society. The 1992 document, however, delegated much more authority to the president and to the cabinet; they were given the task of running the government, while the party became responsible for overall…

  • Vietnamese Communists (Vietnamese military and political organization)

    Viet Cong (VC), the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). The name is said to have first been used by South Vietnamese Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem to belittle the rebels. Though beginning

  • Vietnamese language

    Vietnamese language, official language of Vietnam, spoken in the early 21st century by more than 70 million people. It belongs to the Viet-Muong subbranch of the Vietic branch of the Mon-Khmer family, which is itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Except for a group of divergent rural dialects

  • Vietnamese literature

    Vietnamese literature, body of literature produced by Vietnamese-speaking people, primarily in Vietnam. Like the river basins that have nourished Vietnam’s agricultural civilization for thousands of years, Vietnamese literature has been fed by two great tributaries: the indigenous oral literature

  • Vietnamese National Popular Front (Vietnamese political organization)

    Viet Minh: …by a new organization, the Lien Viet, or Vietnamese National Popular Front. In 1951 the majority of the Viet Minh leadership was absorbed into the Lao Dong, or Vietnamese Workers’ Party (later Vietnamese Communist Party), which remained the dominant force in North Vietnam.

  • Vietnamese Nationalist Party (Vietnamese revolutionary organization)

    Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD), the first large-scale revolutionary nationalist organization in Vietnam. Founded officially in 1927, the VNQDD was modeled after the revolutionary Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) of China. Its aim, like that of the Nationalist Party, was the establishment of a

  • Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association (Vietnamese political organization)

    Ho Chi Minh: Early life: …organizing them into the Vietnam Thanh Nien Cach Menh Dong Chi Hoi (“Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association”), which became famous under the name Thanh Nien. Almost all of its members had been exiled from Indochina because of their political beliefs and had gathered together in order to participate in the struggle…

  • Vietnamese Workers’ Party (Vietnamese political organization)

    Ho Chi Minh: The Geneva Accords and the Second Indochina War: …committee of Ho Chi Minh’s Lao Dong (Worker’s Party), it was decided that the establishment of socialism in the North was linked with the unification with the South. This policy was confirmed by the third congress of the Lao Dong, held shortly thereafter in Hanoi. During the congress, Ho Chi…

  • Vietnamization (American policy)

    20th-century international relations: Scaling back U.S. commitments: …he outlined a policy of Vietnamization, comprising a phased withdrawal of American ground troops and additional material and advisory support to make the ARVN self-sufficient. Nixon also hoped to enlist the Soviets in the cause of peace, but Moscow had less influence over Hanoi than he imagined and could not…

  • Vieux Carré (district, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States)

    New Orleans: Cultural life: …the Spanish-French architecture in its Vieux Carré (French: “Old Square”), the reckless abandon of its Carnival and Mardi Gras, and its reputation as the birthplace, between the 1880s and World War I, of jazz.

  • Vieux Cordelier, Le (newspaper by Desmoulins)

    Camille Desmoulins: …issues of his new paper, Le Vieux Cordelier (“The Old Cordelier,” December 5–30, 1793), Desmoulins attacked the Hébertists for instigating the dechristianizing movement that sought to destroy all Roman Catholic institutions. His friend Robespierre, by now the chief spokesman of the all-powerful Committee of Public Safety, supported this anti-Hébertist campaign,…

  • Vieux Fort (Saint Lucia, West Indies)

    Vieux Fort, town and former capital of St. Lucia island in the eastern Caribbean Sea. It lies 19 miles (30 km) south of the harbour of Castries and is situated near the island’s extreme southeastern tip on fertile, flat ground overlooking Vieux Fort Bay. Named for the 17th-century fort (Old Fort)

  • vieux gar?on (card game)

    Old maid, simple card game popular with young children. It takes its name from a 19th-century specially illustrated deck of cards showing colourful characters in matching pairs, plus a single old maid card. In Germany the equivalent game is called schwarzer Peter (“black Peter”) and in France vieux

  • Vieux-Colombier, Theatre of the (French theatre)

    Theatre of the Vieux-Colombier, French theatre founded in Paris in 1913 by the writer and critic Jacques Copeau to present alternatives to both the realistic “well-made” plays of the time and the star system of actor-celebrities. Copeau sought to renovate French theatre by focusing attention on the

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