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  • Verdon, Pierre (French inventor)

    food processor: …food processor was invented by Pierre Verdon, whose Le Magi-Mix, a compact household version of his own earlier restaurant-scaled Robot-Coupe, was first exhibited in Paris in 1971. Carl Sontheimer, an American engineer and inventor, refined Verdon’s machines to produce the Cuisinart. The widespread success of the Cuisinart following its exhibition…

  • verdriet van Belgi?, Het (novel by Claus)

    Belgian literature: After World War II: …Het verdriet van Belgi? (1983; The Sorrow of Belgium), paints an unflattering portrait of a Flemish collaborationist family in the years before, during, and after World War II, but it is also a Bildungsroman about a wayward adolescent who decides to become a writer.

  • Verdugo del Carmen Aguirre, Patricia (Chilean writer and journalist)

    Patricia Verdugo, (Patricia Verdugo del Carmen Aguirre), Chilean writer and journalist (born Nov. 30, 1947, Santiago, Chile—died Jan. 13, 2008, Santiago), spent her entire career uncovering corruption and the political machinations and human rights abuses of the regime of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, who

  • Verdugo, Patricia (Chilean writer and journalist)

    Patricia Verdugo, (Patricia Verdugo del Carmen Aguirre), Chilean writer and journalist (born Nov. 30, 1947, Santiago, Chile—died Jan. 13, 2008, Santiago), spent her entire career uncovering corruption and the political machinations and human rights abuses of the regime of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, who

  • Verdun (France)

    Verdun, town, Meuse département, Grand Est région, northeastern France, on the Meuse River. Most of the town is on the left bank, near the Citadel. Practically destroyed in World War I, it was rebuilt with wide streets. A cathedral, dating from the 11th century and rising on the highest point of

  • Verdun, Battle of (World War I [1916])

    Battle of Verdun, (February 21–December 18, 1916), World War I engagement in which the French repulsed a major German offensive. It was one of the longest, bloodiest, and most-ferocious battles of the war; French casualties amounted to about 400,000, German ones to about 350,000. Some 300,000 were

  • Verdun, Treaty of (France [843])

    Treaty of Verdun, (August 843), treaty partitioning the Carolingian empire among the three surviving sons of the emperor Louis I (the Pious). The treaty was the first stage in the dissolution of the empire of Charlemagne and foreshadowed the formation of the modern countries of western Europe.

  • verdure tapestry (decorative arts)

    Verdure tapestry, type of tapestry decorated with a design based on plant forms. It is not known exactly when the first verdure tapestries were made, but, by the 16th century, tapestries with formal designs derived from foliage had become immensely popular. In the last half of the 17th century, l

  • Verdurous Sanguinaria (play by Mac Low)

    Jackson Mac Low: …a performance of his work Verdurous Sanguinaria in 1961 at the home of Yoko Ono. The words of that play were sourced from 26 different dictionaries. In 1963, he copublished (with composer La Monte Young) An Anthology of Chance Operations…, which became a fundamental resource for the Fluxus art movement,…

  • Verdy, Violette (French ballerina)

    Violette Verdy, French ballerina and dance director who was an admired star of New York City Ballet for nearly 20 years (1958–77). Her exceptional charm and musicality inspired George Balanchine and other choreographers to create roles that showcased her eloquent and buoyant dancing. Guillerm began

  • Vere family (English family)

    Vere Family, noted English family that held the hereditary office of lord great chamberlain from 1133 to 1779 and the earldom of Oxford from 1142 to 1703. The family derived its name from the village of Ver, near Bayeux, in France. Its founder, Aubrey de Vere (c. 1040–1112), was a Norman who came

  • Vere, Captain (fictional character)

    Captain Vere, fictional character, the captain of the warship Indomitable in the novel Billy Budd, Foretopman (written 1888–91, published posthumously), the final novel by Herman

  • Vere, Edward de (English poet and dramatist)

    Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford, English lyric poet and theatre patron, who became, in the 20th century, the strongest candidate proposed (next to William Shakespeare himself) for the authorship of Shakespeare’s plays. Evidence exists that Oxford was known during his lifetime to have written

  • Vere, John de (English soldier)

    John de Vere, 13th earl of Oxford, English soldier and royal official, a Lancastrian leader in the Wars of the Roses. He helped to restore the deposed King Henry VI (1470) and later (1485) to secure the English throne for the last surviving male claimant from the house of Lancaster, Henry Tudor,

  • Vere, Robert de (English statesman)

    Robert de Vere, 9th earl of Oxford, favourite of King Richard II of England (ruled 1377–99) during that monarch’s minority. He led the group of courtiers who unsuccessfully supported Richard’s efforts in 1385–87 to wrest control of the government from powerful nobles. Through his mother, a

  • Vere, Sir Francis de (English soldier)

    Vere Family: …known as the “fighting Veres”; Sir Francis (1560–1609) commanded the English troops in the Netherlands that fought against Spain in the service of the United Provinces, while his younger brother Sir Horace (1565–1635) fought in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War. Edward (1550–1604), the 17th Earl of Oxford, was a…

  • Vere, Sir Horace de (English soldier)

    Vere Family: …Provinces, while his younger brother Sir Horace (1565–1635) fought in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War. Edward (1550–1604), the 17th Earl of Oxford, was a poet and dramatist who squandered much of the family’s wealth; he has sometimes been proposed as the real author of William Shakespeare’s plays.

  • Vereda da salva??o (work by Andrade)

    Jorge Andrade: In Vereda da salva??o (1965; “The Path of Salvation”), he vividly depicted the delirium and destruction of a group of religious mystics at the hands of the authorities.

  • Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch trading company)

    Dutch East India Company, trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state’s trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the

  • Vereeniging (South Africa)

    Vereeniging, town, Gauteng province, South Africa. It lies along the Vaal River, south of Johannesburg, at the Free State border. Its name, which is an Afrikaans word meaning “association,” refers to the coal-mining association that owned the town when it was founded in 1892. Peace negotiations to

  • Vereeniging, Peace of (South Africa [1902])

    Peace of Vereeniging, (May 31, 1902), treaty that ended the South African War (q.v.), or Boer War; it was signed in Pretoria, after initial Boer approval in Vereeniging, between representatives of the British and ex-republican Boer governments. It ended the independence of the South African

  • Vereide, Abraham (American clergyman)

    The Family: …God to the movement’s founder, Abraham Vereide, and on subsequent refinements by Douglas Coe, Vereide’s successor, and other Family leaders. Centred at The Cedars, a mansion in Arlington, Virginia, it is active throughout the world.

  • Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands

    United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany, union of 10 Lutheran territorial churches in Germany, organized in 1948 at Eisenach, E.Ger. The territorial churches were those of Bavaria, Brunswick, Hamburg, Hanover, Mecklenburg, Saxony, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thüringia. The

  • Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG (German company)

    Thyssen family: …holdings into a trust (Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG [United Steelworks Co.]) that controlled more than 75 percent of Germany’s ore reserve and employed 200,000 workers.

  • Vereinte Grüne ?sterreichs (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Political process: …GA; founded 1986) and the United Greens of Austria (Vereinte Grüne ?sterreichs; VG?; founded 1982), have come to be known collectively as the Greens. The Greens first won seats in the Austrian parliament in 1986.

  • Verel (fibre)

    modacrylic: … (acrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride) and Verel (acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride).

  • Verelius, Olof (Swedish author)

    Swedish literature: The 17th century: …standards on native literature, and Olof Verelius edited and translated Icelandic sagas. It was Olof Rudbeck, however, who became interested in Verelius’s work and developed a theory that Sweden was the lost Atlantis and had been the cradle of Western civilization. He proposed this idea in Atland eller Manheim (1679–1702),…

  • Vérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de la (French-Canadian soldier and explorer)

    Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye, French-Canadian soldier, fur trader, and explorer whose exploits, little honoured during his lifetime, rank him as one of the greatest explorers of the Canadian West. Moreover, the string of trading posts he and his sons built in the course of their

  • Verenigde Nederlanden, Republiek der (historical state, Europe)

    Dutch Republic, (1588–1795), state whose area comprised approximately that of the present Kingdom of the Netherlands and which achieved a position of world power in the 17th century. The republic consisted of the seven northern Netherlands provinces that won independence from Spain from 1568 to

  • Verenigde Party (political party, South Africa)

    United Party (UP), one of the leading political parties of South Africa from its inception in 1934 until dissolution in 1977. It was the governing party from 1934 to 1948 and thereafter the official opposition party in Parliament. The United Party was a product of the political crisis brought about

  • Vereshchagin, Vasily Vasilyevich (Russian painter)

    Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin, Russian painter noted for his war scenes. Vereshchagin attended the St. Petersburg Academy and studied in Paris. Devoting his life to travel, he acquired subjects for paintings from on-the-spot impressions in the Caucasus, in Crimea, along the Danube River, and in

  • Verestchagin, Vasily Vasilyevich (Russian painter)

    Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin, Russian painter noted for his war scenes. Vereshchagin attended the St. Petersburg Academy and studied in Paris. Devoting his life to travel, he acquired subjects for paintings from on-the-spot impressions in the Caucasus, in Crimea, along the Danube River, and in

  • Verethraghna (Zoroastrian deity)

    Verethraghna, in Zoroastrianism, the spirit of victory. Together with Mithra, the god of truth, Verethraghna shares martial characteristics that relate him to the Vedic war-god Indra. In Zoroastrian texts, Verethraghna appears as an agent of Mithra and Rashnu, the god of justice, and as the means o

  • Verethraghna I (king of Iran)

    Bahrām I , Sāsānian king (reigned 273–276). A son of Shāpūr I, during his father’s reign he governed the province of Atropatene. His succession to his brother Hormizd I strengthened the position of the Zoroastrian clergy and their high priest Kartēr, and at their insistence Bahrām imprisoned Mani,

  • Verethraghna II (king of Iran)

    Bahrām II, Sāsānian king (reigned 276–293), the son and successor of Bahrām I. Soon after becoming king, he was forced to defend his position against a brother, Hormizd, viceroy of the eastern provinces. In 283, exploiting Bahrām’s preoccupations, the Roman emperor Carus invaded Mesopotamia

  • Verethraghna III (king of Iran)

    Narses: …the succession of Bahrām’s son, Bahrām III. Narses later antagonized Rome by occupying the independent portion of Armenia. In the following year he suffered a severe reversal, losing his war chest and his harem. He then concluded a peace (296), by the terms of which Armenia remained under Roman suzerainty,…

  • Verethraghna IV (king of Iran)

    Bahrām IV, Sāsānian king (reigned 388–399). One of the sons of Shāpūr II, Bahrām first served as governor of Kermān before succeeding his brother Shāpūr III on the throne. Although the partition of Armenia with Rome is frequently ascribed to Bahrām, it probably occurred in 387, during the reign of

  • Verethraghna V (king of Iran)

    Bahrām V, Sāsānian king (reigned 420–438). He was celebrated in literature, art, and folklore for his chivalry, romantic adventures, and huntsmanship. He was educated at the court of al-Mundhir, the Lakhmid Arab king of al-?ira, in Mesene, whose support helped him gain the throne after the

  • Verethraghna VI (king of Iran)

    Bahrām VI Chūbīn, Sāsānian king (reigned 590–591). A general and head of the house of Mihran at Rayy (near modern Tehrān), he performed, in gaining the throne, a feat exceptional for one not of Sāsānian royal blood. Prominent as master of the household in the Byzantine wars of the Sāsānian king

  • Verey, Rosemary Isabel Baird Sandilands (British garden designer and author)

    Rosemary Isabel Baird Sandilands Verey, British garden designer and writer (born Dec. 21, 1918, Chatham, Kent, Eng.—died May 31, 2001, London, Eng.), inspired horticulturists and amateur gardeners alike through her books and the award-winning 1.6-ha (4-ac) English garden at her home, Barnsley H

  • Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade, Die (play by Weiss)

    Marat/Sade, play in two acts by German dramatist Peter Weiss, published and performed in West Berlin (now part of Berlin) in 1964 under the title Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats, dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade (The

  • Verfremdungseffekt (theatre)

    Alienation effect, idea central to the dramatic theory of the German dramatist-director Bertolt Brecht. It involves the use of techniques designed to distance the audience from emotional involvement in the play through jolting reminders of the artificiality of the theatrical performance. Examples

  • Verfügungstruppe (Waffen-SS)

    SS: …the occupied territories; and the Verfügungstruppen (Disposition Troops), which swelled to 39 divisions in World War II and which, serving as elite combat troops alongside the regular army, gained a reputation as fanatical fighters.

  • Verga, Giovanni (Italian author)

    Giovanni Verga, novelist, short-story writer, and playwright, most important of the Italian verismo (Realist) school of novelists (see verismo). His reputation was slow to develop, but modern critics have assessed him as one of the greatest of all Italian novelists. His influence was particularly

  • Vergara, Baldomero Espartero, prince de (regent of Spain)

    Baldomero Espartero, prince de Vergara, Spanish general and statesman, victor in the First Carlist War, and regent. The son of working-class parents, Espartero entered the army at age 15 and fought with Spanish forces in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and in the rebellious Americas.

  • Vergara, Convention of (Spanish history)

    Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, conde de Molina: …general Rafael Maroto signed the Convention of Vergara, by which the liberals recognized Basque legal privileges, most of the fighting ceased and Don Carlos went into exile. He abdicated his pretensions in 1845, taking the title conde de Molina, in the vain hope that his son Carlos Luis de Borbón…

  • Vergara, Sofía (Colombian American actress)

    Sofía Vergara, Colombian American actress who was perhaps best known for her work on the television show Modern Family (2009–20). Vergara’s chance encounter with a photographer on a Colombian beach when she was 17 years old led her to abandon her plans for a career in dentistry to pursue modeling.

  • verge escapement (device)

    clock: Escapement: …most common escapement was the verge-and-foliot.

  • Vergé, Roger (French chef and restaurateur)

    Roger Vergé, French chef and restaurateur (born April 30, 1930, Commentry, France—died June 5, 2015, Mougins, France), was a pioneer of nouvelle cuisine, a lighter French culinary style that replaced the traditional rich dishes and heavy sauces of haute cuisine with fresh ingredients prepared with

  • verge-and-foliot escapement (device)

    clock: Escapement: …most common escapement was the verge-and-foliot.

  • vergeboard (architecture)

    Bargeboard, exposed board or false rafter running underneath the slopes of a projecting gable roof. Such a board is often richly decorated with carved, cut-out, or painted designs and patterns, particularly in late medieval Europe, in Tudor England, and in 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture

  • Vergecius, Angelus (Cretan scribe)

    calligraphy: The Italian Renaissance: …writing of one in particular, Angelus Vergecius, was used as a model for the French Royal Greek type, which has influenced the form of Greek printing down to the present day.

  • Vergeet ril (work by Malherbe)

    Daniel Fran?ois Malherbe: …novelist for such works as Vergeet nil (1913; “Don’t Forget”), an extremely popular novel about the South African (Boer) War; Die Meulenaar (1936; “The Miller”); Saul (1933–37), a biblical trilogy; and En die wawiele rol (1945; “And the Wagon Wheels Roll On”), which describes the Great Trek. He served as…

  • Vergeltungswaffen-1 (military technology)

    V-1 missile, German jet-propelled missile of World War II, the forerunner of modern cruise missiles. More than 8,000 V-1s were launched against London from June 13, 1944, to March 29, 1945, with about 2,400 hitting the target area. A smaller number were fired against Belgium. The rockets were

  • Vergeltungswaffen-2 (military technology)

    V-2 missile, German ballistic missile of World War II, the forerunner of modern space rockets and long-range missiles. Developed in Germany from 1936 through the efforts of scientists led by Wernher von Braun, it was first successfully launched on October 3, 1942, and was fired against Paris on

  • Vergennes, Charles Gravier, comte de (French foreign minister)

    Charles Gravier, count de Vergennes, French foreign minister who fashioned the alliance with the North American colonists that helped them throw off British rule in the American Revolution; at the same time, he worked, with considerable success, to establish a stable balance of power in Europe.

  • Vergentis in senium (decretal letter by Innocent III)

    Innocent III: Early pontificate: In a decretal letter, Vergentis in senium (March 25, 1199), that he sent to Viterbo, a city within the Papal States, Innocent declared that heresy was treason against God. Consequently, in pursuing heretics, he applied the sanctions and employed the procedural norms used in ancient Roman treason trials. This…

  • Verger, Treaty of Le (France [1488])

    Francis II: …was forced to sign the Treaty of Le Verger, in which he undertook to contract marriages for his daughters Anne and Isabelle only with the French king’s permission, thereby relieving France of the danger that Brittany might fall to some foreign power.

  • Vergerio il Giovane (Italian bishop)

    Pietro Paulo Vergerio, Italian reformer and most famous of “Old Catholic” bishops in the 16th century who accepted the principles of the Reformation while retaining a historic Roman Catholic episcopate and not withdrawing from the Church. Educated in jurisprudence at Padua, Vergerio practiced law

  • Vergerio il Vecchio (Italian educator)

    Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Italian educator whose treatises on humanistic education greatly influenced educational methods and curriculum in Renaissance Italy. Vergerio studied at Padua, Florence, and Bologna and obtained degrees in the arts and medicine. From 1390 to 1406 he was professor of logic at

  • Vergerio the Elder (Italian educator)

    Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Italian educator whose treatises on humanistic education greatly influenced educational methods and curriculum in Renaissance Italy. Vergerio studied at Padua, Florence, and Bologna and obtained degrees in the arts and medicine. From 1390 to 1406 he was professor of logic at

  • Vergerio the Younger (Italian bishop)

    Pietro Paulo Vergerio, Italian reformer and most famous of “Old Catholic” bishops in the 16th century who accepted the principles of the Reformation while retaining a historic Roman Catholic episcopate and not withdrawing from the Church. Educated in jurisprudence at Padua, Vergerio practiced law

  • Vergerio, Pietro Paolo (Italian educator)

    Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Italian educator whose treatises on humanistic education greatly influenced educational methods and curriculum in Renaissance Italy. Vergerio studied at Padua, Florence, and Bologna and obtained degrees in the arts and medicine. From 1390 to 1406 he was professor of logic at

  • Vergerio, Pietro Paulo (Italian bishop)

    Pietro Paulo Vergerio, Italian reformer and most famous of “Old Catholic” bishops in the 16th century who accepted the principles of the Reformation while retaining a historic Roman Catholic episcopate and not withdrawing from the Church. Educated in jurisprudence at Padua, Vergerio practiced law

  • Vergès, Jacques (French defense attorney)

    Jacques Vergès, French defense attorney (born March 5, 1925, Ubon Ratchathani, Siam [now Thailand]—died Aug. 15, 2013, Paris, France), defended notorious war criminals, including Nazi leader Klaus Barbie, Venezuelan revolutionary Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (Carlos the Jackal), and former Cambodian head

  • Verghina (archaeological site, Greece)

    Verghina, archaeological site and ancient capital of Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía) in Imathía nomós (department), northern Greece. It is situated on a plateau 47 miles (75 km) southwest of Thessaloníki, at the eastern foot of the Vérmio (also spelled Vérmion) Mountains, on the southern edge

  • Vergier, Henri du (French noble)

    Wars of the Vendée: …Charette de La Contrie, and Henri du Vergier, Count de La Rochejaquelein. In May the rebels (about 30,000 strong) took the towns of Thouars, Parthenay, and Fontenay, and their army, which had changed its name from “the Catholic Army” to “the Catholic and Royal Army,” turned north and on June…

  • Vergil (Roman poet)

    Virgil, Roman poet, best known for his national epic, the Aeneid (from c. 30 bce; unfinished at his death). Virgil was regarded by the Romans as their greatest poet, an estimation that subsequent generations have upheld. His fame rests chiefly upon the Aeneid, which tells the story of Rome’s

  • Vergil, Polydore (British humanist)

    Polydore Vergil, Italian-born Humanist who wrote an English history that became required reading in schools and influenced the 16th-century English chroniclers Edward Hall and Raphael Holinshed and, through them, Shakespeare. Vergil was educated in Padua and perhaps in Bologna. After he was

  • Vergilius orator an poeta (work by Florus)

    Publius Annius Florus: …work of Publius Annius Florus, Vergilius orator an poeta (“Was Virgil an Orator or a Poet?”), of which a fragment is preserved, authenticates his authorship of the history.

  • Vergina (archaeological site, Greece)

    Verghina, archaeological site and ancient capital of Macedonia (Modern Greek: Makedonía) in Imathía nomós (department), northern Greece. It is situated on a plateau 47 miles (75 km) southwest of Thessaloníki, at the eastern foot of the Vérmio (also spelled Vérmion) Mountains, on the southern edge

  • Vergine, Aqua (Roman aqueduct)

    Rome: Piazza di Spagna: …(“Scow”), is fed by the Acqua Vergine, an aqueduct of 19 bce, which escaped Gothic destruction because it was mainly underground and which was repaired in 1447. When the fountain was planned in the early 1600s by Bernini (believed to be Pietro, though some have attributed the work to his…

  • vergini delle rocce, Le (novel by D’Annunzio)

    Gabriele D'Annunzio: …Le vergini delle rocce (1896; The Maidens of the Rocks), featured viciously self-seeking and wholly amoral Nietzschean heroes.

  • Verginius Rufus, Lucius (Roman governor)

    Lucius Verginius Rufus, Roman provincial governor and distinguished official, known for his repeated refusal of the imperial throne. Verginius was the son of an undistinguished Roman eques (knight). Nevertheless, he enjoyed a successful career under the emperors Claudius and Nero and became consul

  • Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litthauischen, Altslawischen, Gotischen, und Deutschen (work by Bopp)

    Franz Bopp: …great work in six parts, Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litthauischen, Altslawischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (1833–52; “Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slavic, Gothic, and German”). In this work he attempted to describe the original grammatical structure of the languages, trace their phonetic laws, and…

  • Vergleichendes W?rterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen (work by Fick)

    August Fick: …major work (1868), later titled Vergleichendes W?rterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen (“Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-European Languages”), emphasizing the lexical comparison of ancient recorded languages. Another important work, Die griechischen Personennamen nach ihrer Bildung erkl?rt . . . (1874; “Greek Proper Names As Explained by Their Formation . . .”), showed…

  • Vergleichung Shakespears und Andreas Gryphs (work by Schlegel)

    Johann Elias Schlegel: …awareness of Shakespeare’s genius in Vergleichung Shakespears und Andreas Gryphs (1741), a discussion of the relative merits of Shakespeare and the leading 17th-century German dramatist and poet. Schlegel developed a theory of literary appreciation that anticipated later developments in the field of aesthetics; he insisted that art aims at providing…

  • Vergne, Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la (French author)

    Marie-Madeleine, comtesse de La Fayette, French writer whose La Princesse de Clèves is a landmark of French fiction. In Paris during the civil wars of the Fronde, young Mlle de la Vergne was brought into contact with Madame de Sévigné, now famous for her letters. She also met a leading political

  • Vergniaud, Pierre-Victurnien (French statesman)

    Pierre-Victurnien Vergniaud, eloquent spokesman for the moderate Girondin faction during the French Revolution. The son of an army contractor, Vergniaud attended college in Paris and in 1781 became an advocate in the Parlement (high court of justice) of Bordeaux. Although he was a capable lawyer,

  • vergonzoso en palacio, El (work by Tirso de Molina)

    Tirso de Molina: …types and manners, such as El vergonzoso en palacio (written 1611, published 1621; “The Bashful Man in the Palace”), are animated, varied in mood, and usually lyrical. At the same time, however, Tirso’s style is erratic and sometimes trite. In pure comedy he excels in cloak-and-sword situations; and in, for…

  • Verhaegen, Theodor (Flemish sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Flanders: …Frans Verbruggen, Michel Vervoort, and Theodor Verhaegen provide a remarkable parallel to those in central Europe.

  • Verhaeren, émile (Belgian poet)

    émile Verhaeren, foremost among the Belgian poets who wrote in French. The vigour of his work and the breadth of his vision have been compared to those of Victor Hugo and Walt Whitman. Verhaeren was educated at Brussels and Ghent and during 1875–81 studied law at Leuven (Louvain), where he became

  • verh?ngnisvolle Gabel, Die (work by Platen)

    August, Graf von Platen: …in the manner of Aristophanes: Die verh?ngnisvolle Gabel (1826; “The Fateful Prong”) and Der romantische Oedipus (1829; “The Romantic Oedipus”). Der romantische Oedipus earned him the enmity of two other eminent German writers—Karl Immermann, whose work was ridiculed in it, and Immermann’s close friend Heinrich Heine. Platen, however, possessed many…

  • Verhoeff, Pieter (Dutch admiral)

    Jan Pieterszoon Coen: Career as merchant: …Indonesia with the fleet of Pieter Verhoeff as assistant merchant of the United East India Company (informally called the Dutch East India Company), which had received from the Dutch government exclusive shipping and trading rights in the area from the Cape of Good Hope east to South America. While on…

  • Verhoeven, Willem (Flemish writer)

    Belgian literature: Revival: …of the 18th century, however, Willem Verhoeven and Jan Baptist Verlooy had started a reaction against this French influence. Like contemporary historical and scientific writers they reverted to the work of the 16th-century humanists but neglected the medieval masterpieces. Revival was helped by the rederijkers (rhetoricians; see rederijkerskamer), who continued,…

  • Verhofstadt, Guy (prime minister of Belgium)

    Guy Verhofstadt , Belgian politician who served as prime minister of Belgium (1999–2008). Verhofstadt received his law degree in 1975 and practiced law in Ghent, Belg. At that time he also became active in the Association of Liberal Flemish Students. In 1979 he was elected president of the youth

  • Verh?r des Lukullus, Das (opera by Dessau)

    Paul Dessau: …composed his most successful opera, Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (1949; “The Sentencing of Lucullus”; also called Das Verh?r des Lukullus [“The Trial of Lucullus”]), with libretto by Brecht. Dessau’s other works include the opera Einstein (1971–73).

  • Verhulst, Rombout (Dutch sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Flanders: …son Artus Quellinus the Younger, Rombout Verhulst, and Lucas Faydherbe.

  • Verica (British ruler)

    United Kingdom: The conquest: Verica had been driven from his kingdom and appealed for help, and it may have been calculated that a hostile Catuvellaunian supremacy would endanger stability across the Channel. Under Aulus Plautius an army of four legions was assembled, together with a number of auxiliary regiments…

  • veridical perception (psychology)

    space perception: General considerations: ” Such perception is called veridical perception—the direct perception of stimuli as they exist. Without some degree of veridicality concerning physical space, one cannot seek food, flee from enemies, or even socialize. Veridical perception also causes a person to experience changing stimuli as if they were stable: even though the…

  • verifiability principle (philosophy)

    Verifiability principle, a philosophical doctrine fundamental to the school of Logical Positivism holding that a statement is meaningful only if it is either empirically verifiable or else tautological (i.e., such that its truth arises entirely from the meanings of its terms). Thus, the principle

  • verification principle (philosophy)

    Verifiability principle, a philosophical doctrine fundamental to the school of Logical Positivism holding that a statement is meaningful only if it is either empirically verifiable or else tautological (i.e., such that its truth arises entirely from the meanings of its terms). Thus, the principle

  • verificationism (semantics)

    semantics: Verificationist semantics: Frege did not address the problem of how linguistic expressions come to have the meanings they do. A natural, albeit vague, answer is that expressions mean what they do because of what speakers do with them. An example of that approach is provided…

  • verificationist semantics (semantics)

    semantics: Verificationist semantics: Frege did not address the problem of how linguistic expressions come to have the meanings they do. A natural, albeit vague, answer is that expressions mean what they do because of what speakers do with them. An example of that approach is provided…

  • Verigin, Peter (Russian religious leader)

    Dukhobor: …of nudist protest pilgrimages, prompting Peter Verigin, the leader of the “large party” faction of the Dukhobors, to go to Canada to restore order. In 1908 he founded a communal settlement of 6,000 in British Columbia, which prospered until his death in 1924. His son’s lack of leadership and the…

  • vérillon (musical instrument)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: Musical glasses are considerably older: the tuned metal cups or bowls of Asia (sometimes played in India as friction vessels) were transformed in Europe into tuned glasses and are first seen in the Musica theoretica (1492) of the Italian musical theorist Franchino Gafori. One hears…

  • VeriSign (American company)

    Leonard M. Adleman: …led to the creation of VeriSign, a widely used digital certification system on the Internet. Millions of people use RSA encryption to secure e-mail and other digital transactions.

  • verisimilitude (literature)

    Verisimilitude, the semblance of reality in dramatic or nondramatic fiction. The concept implies that either the action represented must be acceptable or convincing according to the audience’s own experience or knowledge or, as in the presentation of science fiction or tales of the supernatural,

  • verismo (Italian literature)

    Verismo, (Italian: “realism”), literary realism as it developed in Italy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its primary exponents were the Sicilian novelists Luigi Capuana and Giovanni Verga. The realist movement arose in Europe after the French Revolution and the realist influence reached

  • verismo (Italian opera)

    Verismo, (Italian: “realism”) a style of Italian opera writing that flourished in the last decade of the 19th century. Based on the slightly earlier Italian literary verismo, which was itself influenced by French naturalism, operatic verismo was marked by melodramatic, often violent plots with

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