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  • Dalriada (historical kingdom, Ireland)

    Dalriada, Gaelic kingdom that, at least from the 5th century ad, extended on both sides of the North Channel and composed the northern part of the present County Antrim, Northern Ireland, and part of the Inner Hebrides and Argyll, in Scotland. In earlier times, Argyll had received extensive

  • Dalruadhain (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Campbeltown, small royal burgh (town) and seaport, Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, western Scotland. Campbeltown is the main centre of the Peninsula of Kintyre, which is 40 miles (65 km) long and protrudes into the Atlantic. By sea it is 83 miles (134 km) southwest of

  • Dalrymple, Alexander (British geographer and hydrographer)

    Alexander Dalrymple, Scottish geographer, first hydrographer of the British Admiralty and proponent of the existence of a vast, populous continent in the South Pacific, which he called the Great South Land. Dalrymple spent most of the time between 1757 and 1764 in the East Indies trying to further

  • Dalrymple, George (Australian explorer)

    Herbert River: Explored in 1864 by George Dalrymple, the river was named after Sir Robert George Herbert, the state’s first premier. Dense forests along its middle course furnish lumber, while sugarcane is grown on flats near the coast. Wallaman Falls (970 feet [296 m]), on the tributary Stony Creek, forms the…

  • Dalrymple, Ian Murray (British screenwriter)
  • Dalrymple, Sir John (English leader)

    William III: The Glen Coe massacre: …merely dismissing from his secretaryship Sir John Dalrymple, on whom responsibility for the massacre was finally placed. In Ireland war formally broke out in 1689, when James landed there with French support. But the successful defense of Londonderry and of Enniskillen, and William’s own victory at the Battle of the…

  • Dalseong Fortress (fort, South Korea)

    Taegu: …Taegu’s other attractions are the Tals?ng (Dalseong) Fortress, an earthen-mound fort that protected Taegu for many centuries but is now a popular park, and Apsan Park, from which a cable car takes visitors up to Mount Ap for views of the city. Taegu is home to a number of colleges…

  • Dalsland (province, Sweden)

    Dalsland, landskap (province), southwestern Sweden, on the Norwegian border, one of the smaller traditional provinces in the country. It is bounded to the east by Lake V?nern, to the west by Norway and the province of Bohusl?n, and to the north by the province of V?rmland. Dalsland is included in

  • Dalton (Georgia, United States)

    Dalton, city, seat (1851) of Whitfield county, northwestern Georgia, U.S., encircled by the Cohutta Mountains. Although founded in 1837 as Cross Plains, it was renamed, probably, for the mother of Edward White (head of the syndicate that bought the townsite), whose maiden name was Dalton. It

  • dalton (physics)

    atom: Atomic mass and isotopes: …measured in terms of the atomic mass unit, which is defined to be 112 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12, or 1.660538921 × 10?24 gram. The mass of an atom consists of the mass of the nucleus plus that of the electrons, so the atomic mass unit is…

  • Dalton Brothers (American outlaws)

    Dalton Brothers, four train and bank robbers famous in U.S. Western history: Grattan (“Grat”; 1861–92), William (“Bill”; 1863–94), Robert (“Bob”; 1870–92), and Emmett (1871–1937). Their older cousins were the outlaw Younger brothers. Their father, Lewis Dalton, a rambler and saloonkeeper,

  • Dalton Defenders Museum (museum, Coffeyville, Kansas, United States)

    Coffeyville: The Dalton Defenders Museum in Coffeyville commemorates local citizens who in October 1892 died in a gun battle with the Dalton brothers, local desperadoes. Montgomery State Fishing Lake is located northwest of the city. Inc. 1872. Pop. (2000) 11,021; (2010) 10,295.

  • Dalton Highway (highway, Alaska, United States)

    Alaska: Transportation: The Dalton Highway, a 414-mile (666-km) road paralleling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, runs from Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay and combines with the existing highway system to provide an overland route from the ice-free southern ports to the Arctic Ocean. The highway becomes more remote and rugged as…

  • Dalton Laboratory Plan (education)

    Dalton Plan, secondary-education technique based on individual learning. Developed by Helen Parkhurst in 1919, it was at first introduced at a school for the handicapped and then in 1920 in the high school of Dalton, Mass. The plan had grown out of the reaction of some progressive educators to the

  • Dalton minimum (astronomy)

    Dalton minimum, period of reduced sunspot activity that occurred between roughly 1790 and 1830. It was named for the English meteorologist and chemist John Dalton. Sunspot activity waxes and wanes with over about an 11-year cycle. During the Dalton minimum, the solar cycle continued; however, the

  • Dalton Plan (education)

    Dalton Plan, secondary-education technique based on individual learning. Developed by Helen Parkhurst in 1919, it was at first introduced at a school for the handicapped and then in 1920 in the high school of Dalton, Mass. The plan had grown out of the reaction of some progressive educators to the

  • Dalton State College (college, Dalton, Georgia, United States)
  • Dalton’s law (physical science)

    Dalton’s law, the statement that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual component gases. The partial pressure is the pressure that each gas would exert if it alone occupied the volume of the mixture at the same temperature. This

  • Dalton, Bill (American outlaw)

    Dalton Brothers: Western history: Grattan (“Grat”; 1861–92), William (“Bill”; 1863–94), Robert (“Bob”; 1870–92), and Emmett (1871–1937). Their older cousins were the outlaw Younger brothers.

  • Dalton, Emmet (American outlaw)

    Dalton Brothers: …1863–94), Robert (“Bob”; 1870–92), and Emmett (1871–1937). Their older cousins were the outlaw Younger brothers.

  • Dalton, John (British scientist)

    John Dalton, English meteorologist and chemist, a pioneer in the development of modern atomic theory. Dalton was born into a Quaker family of tradesmen; his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker, and his father, Joseph, was a weaver. Joseph married Deborah Greenup in 1755, herself from a

  • Dalton, Katharina Dorothea Kuipers (British gynecologist)

    Katharina Dorothea Kuipers Dalton, British gynecologist (born Nov. 11, 1916, London, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 2004, Poole, Dorset, Eng.), identified the symptoms suffered by women before and during their menstrual cycles as those of an actual physical disorder, which she called premenstrual syndrome, o

  • Dalton, Roque (El Salvadoran poet)

    El Salvador: The arts: …country’s most widely respected poets, Roque Dalton, was assassinated in 1975 as a result of leftist internecine struggle.

  • Dalton, William (American outlaw)

    Dalton Brothers: Western history: Grattan (“Grat”; 1861–92), William (“Bill”; 1863–94), Robert (“Bob”; 1870–92), and Emmett (1871–1937). Their older cousins were the outlaw Younger brothers.

  • Dalton, William (American vaudeville star)

    Julian Eltinge, American vaudeville star, often called the greatest female impersonator in theatrical history. Eltinge played his first female role at age 10. A graduate of Harvard, he entered vaudeville in 1904, soon commanding one of the highest salaries in show business. During a successful tour

  • daltonide compound (chemistry)

    nonstoichiometric compound: …berthollide compounds in distinction from daltonides (in which the atomic ratios are those of small integers), nonstoichiometric compounds are best known among the transition elements. Several of them are important as components of solid-state electronic devices, such as rectifiers, thermoelectric generators, photodetectors, thermistors, and magnets useful in high-frequency circuits.

  • Daltrey, Roger (British singer)

    the Who: May 19, 1945, London, England), Roger Daltrey (b. March 1, 1944, London), John Entwistle (b. October 9, 1944, London—d. June 27, 2002, Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.), and Keith Moon (b. August 23, 1946, London—d. September 7, 1978, London). Moon was replaced by Kenney Jones (b. September 16, 1948, London).

  • daluo (musical instrument)

    luogu: …present in most styles are daluo (large gong without a boss, beaten with a padded mallet), bo (cymbals), and gu (skin-headed drum, beaten with two sticks). The xiaoluo (small gong without a boss, beaten with a stick or a thin plate), ling (handbells), and ban (woodblock) are sometimes added. Whatever…

  • Dalva (novel by Harrison)

    Jim Harrison: Harrison was especially praised for Dalva (1988; television film 1996), which featured his first female protagonist. The Road Home (1998) expounds upon the family saga begun in Dalva. Other collections of novellas include Julip (1994), The Beast God Forgot to Invent (2000), The Farmer’s Daughter (2010), The River Swimmer (2013),…

  • Daly City (California, United States)

    Daly City, city, San Mateo county, California, U.S. Daly City is adjacent to San Francisco, between the San Bruno Mountains and the Pacific Ocean on the San Francisco peninsula. First inhabited by Ohlone Indians, the site became a Spanish land grant (largely uninhabited) in the 18th century. Later

  • Daly detector (instrument)

    mass spectrometry: Daly detector: In 1960 N.R. Daly introduced a form of detector with properties superior to the electron multipliers described above. In this design the incident ions are attracted to a rounded electrode of a few centimetres in dimension that is held at 10,000 to 20,000…

  • Daly River (river, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Daly River, river in northwestern Northern Territory, Australia; it is formed by the juncture of the King, Katherine, and Flora rivers in the hills west of Arnhem Land and flows northwest for about 200 miles (320 km) to Anson Bay on the Timor Sea. With its major tributary, the Fergusson, the Daly

  • Daly, Augustin (American dramatist and theatrical manager)

    Augustin Daly, American playwright and theatrical manager whose companies were major features of the New York and London stage. Although Daly’s childhood was spent in amateur performances of the Romantic blank-verse drama of the period, it was as a writer of more realistic melodramas that he

  • Daly, Cahal Brendan Cardinal (Irish Roman Catholic prelate)

    Cahal Brendan Cardinal Daly, Irish Roman Catholic prelate (born Oct. 1, 1917, Loughguile, County Antrim, Ire.—died Dec. 31, 2009, Belfast, N.Ire.), was the archbishop of Armagh and primate of all Ireland from 1990 until he retired as archbishop emeritus in 1996. He publicly denounced as “sinful”

  • Daly, César-Denis (French architect)

    Louis Sullivan: Legacy: The French architect César-Denis Daly, for example, in an essay reprinted in a Chicago architectural journal, stated that

  • Daly, Chuck (American basketball coach)

    Chuck Daly, (Charles Jerome Daly), American basketball coach (born July 20, 1930, St. Mary’s, Pa.—died May 9, 2009, Jupiter, Fla.), led the Detroit Pistons to back-to-back National Basketball Association (NBA) championships (1989, 1990) and coached the so-called Dream Team that won the gold medal

  • Daly, John (American golfer)

    British Open: History: American John Daly won that year after a play-off with Italy’s Costantino Rocca, beginning another period of American supremacy at the Open in which 10 of the next 13 winners hailed from the United States, including Tiger Woods, who won three championships (2000, 2005–06). Subsequent years…

  • Daly, John Augustin (American dramatist and theatrical manager)

    Augustin Daly, American playwright and theatrical manager whose companies were major features of the New York and London stage. Although Daly’s childhood was spent in amateur performances of the Romantic blank-verse drama of the period, it was as a writer of more realistic melodramas that he

  • Daly, Marcus (American industrialist)

    Marcus Daly, American mining tycoon. Called the “Copper King,” he was the prime mover behind the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., one of the world’s largest copper producers. Emigrating from Ireland to New York City in 1856, Daly soon moved westward, finding work in mines in California and Utah and

  • Daly, Mary (American theologian, philosopher, and ethicist)

    Mary Daly, American theologian, philosopher, and ethicist who pioneered radical feminist theology. Daly was born into a Roman Catholic family. After earning a Ph.D. in religion from St. Mary’s College (1953), she studied medieval philosophy and Thomist theology at the University of Fribourg,

  • Daly, N. R. (chemist)
  • Daly, Reginald Aldworth (Canadian-American geologist)

    Reginald Aldworth Daly, Canadian-American geologist who independently developed the theory of magmatic stoping, whereby molten magma rises through the Earth’s crust and shatters, but does not melt, the surrounding rocks. The rocks, being denser than the magma, then sink, making room for the magma

  • Dalziel, Diana (American editor and fashion expert)

    Diana Vreeland, American editor and fashion expert whose dramatic personality and distinctive tastes marked her successful leadership of major American fashion magazines during the mid-20th century. Diana Dalziel was the daughter of a Scottish father and an American mother in whose home the leading

  • dam (engineering)

    Dam, structure built across a stream, a river, or an estuary to retain water. Dams are built to provide water for human consumption, for irrigating arid and semiarid lands, or for use in industrial processes. They are used to increase the amount of water available for generating hydroelectric

  • dam (female parent)

    dog: Behavioral development: …deaf, totally dependent on the dam for warmth and nourishment. The dam will instinctively suckle and protect her young, often keeping other dogs and all but the most trusted people away from the whelping box. Between 10 and 14 days after birth, the eyes and ear canals open, and the…

  • Dam Busters, The (film by Anderson [1955])

    The Dam Busters, British World War II film, released in 1955, that chronicles the preparations for and the execution of Operation Chastise (May 16–17, 1943), in which a British air squadron used bouncing bombs to destroy hydroelectric dams that were vital to Germany’s production of war matériel.

  • Dam, Carl Peter Henrik (Danish biochemist)

    Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist who, with Edward A. Doisy, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1943 for research into antihemorrhagic substances and the discovery of vitamin K (1939). Dam, a graduate of the Polytechnic Institute of Copenhagen (1920), taught in the School of

  • Dam, Henrik (Danish biochemist)

    Henrik Dam, Danish biochemist who, with Edward A. Doisy, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1943 for research into antihemorrhagic substances and the discovery of vitamin K (1939). Dam, a graduate of the Polytechnic Institute of Copenhagen (1920), taught in the School of

  • DAMA (communications)

    telecommunications media: Satellite links: …upon request—a process known as demand assigned multiple access (DAMA)—multibeam satellites can link widely distributed mobile and fixed users that cannot be linked economically by optical fibre cables or earthbound radio relays.

  • Dama dama (mammal)

    Fallow deer, (Dama dama), medium-sized deer of the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla) that is frequently kept on estates, in parks, and in zoos. The common fallow deer (Dama dama dama) is native to the eastern Mediterranean; a second, larger, more brightly coloured, short-antlered form, the

  • Dama dama mesopotamica (mammal)

    Persian deer, fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) of western Asia. The maral, an Asiatic red deer, also is often called Persian deer. See fallow

  • dama de Elche, La (sculpture)

    Elche: …La dama de Elche (“The Lady of Elche”), was found on a nearby archaeological site in 1897; a mosaic floor with Latin inscriptions was also uncovered there in 1959. A local custom—declared a national artistic monument in 1931—is observed annually on August 14–15 in the 17th-century church of Santa…

  • dama gazelle (mammal)

    gazelle: The three largest species—the dama gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, and Soemmering’s gazelle—are placed in the genus Nanger (formerly considered a subgenus), and three of the smaller species—Thomson’s gazelle, the red-fronted gazelle, and the Mongalla gazelle—have become the genus Eudorcas

  • Damad Ferid Pa?a (Ottoman vizier)

    Turkey: Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23: The unpopular grand vizier, Damad Ferid Pasha, resigned and was replaced by the more sympathetic Ali Riza Pasha. Negotiations with the Kemalists were followed by the election of a new parliament, which met in Istanbul in January 1920. A large majority in parliament was opposed to the official government…

  • Dāmād, Mu?ammad Bāqir ibn ad- (Islamic philosopher)

    Mīr Dāmād, philosopher, teacher, and leader in the cultural renascence of Iran during the ?afavid dynasty. A descendant of a well-known Shī?ī family, Mīr Dāmād spent most of his life in Isfahan as a student and teacher. Mīr Dāmād’s major contribution to Islāmic philosophy was his concept of time a

  • Damagaram (Niger)

    Zinder, city, south-central Niger. The country’s second largest city, it was the capital of a Muslim dynasty established in the 18th century, which freed itself from the sovereignty of Bornu in the mid-19th century. The city was occupied by French troops in 1899, and it served as the capital of the

  • damage buoyancy (nautical science)

    ship: Damage buoyancy and stability: Building a ship that can be neither sunk nor capsized is beyond practicality, but a ship can be designed to survive moderate damage and, if sinking is inevitable, to sink slowly and without capsizing in order to maximize the survival chances…

  • damage stability (nautical science)

    ship: Damage buoyancy and stability: …subdivision but in lack of damage stability. Longitudinal bulkheads in the vicinity of the torpedo hits limited the flooding to one side, causing the ship to heel quickly to the point where normal hull openings were submerged. As a consequence of this disaster, commercial ships are now forbidden from having…

  • damage, malicious (law)

    collective behaviour: Common misconceptions: …is much less looting and vandalism than is popularly supposed. Even among persons who converge from outside the community there is more petty pilfering for souvenirs than serious crime. Fourth, initially an altruistic selflessness is more prevalent than self-pity and self-serving activity. Frequently noted are dramatic instances of persons who…

  • Damaged Child (photograph by Mann)

    Sally Mann: In Damaged Child, one of Mann’s earliest portraits in the series (begun in 1984), her eldest daughter, Jessie, appears with a swollen eye and an expression seething with recrimination, a look some interpreted as belonging to a victim of child abuse. In truth, Jessie had been…

  • Damaged Lives (film by Ulmer [1933])

    Edgar G. Ulmer: Early work: In 1933 Ulmer helmed Damaged Lives, an exploitation entry about a couple nearly destroyed by venereal disease. It was a commercial success despite having been banned in a number of U.S. cities. He had a less-controversial hit with The Black Cat (1934), though the subject matter was still sensationalistic.…

  • damages (law)

    Damages, in law, money compensation for loss or injury caused by the wrongful act of another. Recovery of damages is the objective of most civil litigation. Originally redress of wrongs was direct—an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. The introduction of monetary systems and dissatisfaction with

  • Damages (American television series)

    Television in the United States: Prime time in the new century: … (2004–11), Over There (2005), and Damages (2007–10; Audience Network, 2011–12); TNT supplied The Closer (2005–12), Saving Grace (2007–10), and Raising the Bar (2008–09); USA Network’s Monk (2002–09) won seven Emmy Awards; and AMC’s Mad Men (begun 2007) won six in its first season,

  • Dāmājī (Gaikwar ruler)

    India: Subordinate Maratha rulers: The rule of Damaji (died 1768) at Baroda was followed by a period of some turmoil. The Gaekwads still remained partly dependent on Pune and the peshwa, especially to intervene in moments of succession crisis. The eventual successor of Damaji, Fateh Singh (ruled 1771–89), did not remain allied…

  • Damaliscus dorcas dorcas (mammal)

    blesbok: An isolated related subspecies, the bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus dorcas), confined to the coastal plain of Western Cape province, came nearer to extinction and is still uncommon; the largest population, of 200–250, lives in Bontebok National Park.

  • Damaliscus lunatus (mammal)

    Topi, (Damaliscus lunatus), one of Africa’s most common and most widespread antelopes. It is a member of the tribe Alcelaphini (family Bovidae), which also includes the blesbok, hartebeest, and wildebeest. Damaliscus lunatus is known as the topi in East Africa and as the sassaby or tsessebe in

  • Damaliscus pygargus dorcas (mammal)

    blesbok: An isolated related subspecies, the bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus dorcas), confined to the coastal plain of Western Cape province, came nearer to extinction and is still uncommon; the largest population, of 200–250, lives in Bontebok National Park.

  • Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi (mammal)

    Blesbok, (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), one of the gaudiest of the antelopes, a South African version of the closely related sassaby. The blesbok ranged the treeless Highveld in countless thousands throughout the mid-19th century but was hunted nearly to extinction. It has been reintroduced,

  • Daman (India)

    Daman, town, Daman and Diu union territory, western India. The town, together with numerous villages in the surrounding area, forms an enclave in southeastern Gujarat state and is situated on the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay) of the Arabian Sea. Known as Dam?o, the town was part of Portuguese India.

  • Daman and Diu (union territory, India)

    Daman and Diu, union territory of India, comprising two widely separated districts on the country’s western coast. Daman is an enclave on the state of Gujarat’s southern coast, situated 100 miles (160 km) north of Mumbai (Bombay). Diu encompasses an island off the southern coast of Gujarat’s

  • Daman Ganga River (river, India)

    Dadra and Nagar Haveli: Geography: …which are crossed by the Daman Ganga River and its tributaries. The only navigable river in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, the Daman Ganga rises in Maharashtra and flows northwestward through the territory toward Daman, a port once famous for its docks.

  • Damanhūr (Egypt)

    Damanhūr, city, capital of Al-Bu?ayrah mu?āfa?ah (governorate) in the western Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. Its name is derived from the ancient Egyptian Timinhor (“City of Horus”) and has historically applied to several centres in Egypt, mostly in the delta. The capital of a Ptolemaic nome,

  • Dam?o (India)

    Daman, town, Daman and Diu union territory, western India. The town, together with numerous villages in the surrounding area, forms an enclave in southeastern Gujarat state and is situated on the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay) of the Arabian Sea. Known as Dam?o, the town was part of Portuguese India.

  • damar (varnish resin)

    Dammar, any of a variety of hard varnish resins obtained from coniferous and hardwood trees characteristic of Southeast and East Asia. These include the conifer genus Agathis (family Araucariaceae), such flowering plants as Shorea (especially S. wiesneri) and other genera of the family

  • Damar, Al- (Sudan)

    Al-Dāmir, town, northeastern Sudan. It lies on the right (east) bank of the Nile River, at an elevation of 1,158 feet (353 metres), about 155 miles (250 km) northeast of Khartoum. Al-Dāmir is a local commercial centre for the date-producing areas to the north. The town’s industries include date

  • Damara (people)

    Bergdama, a seminomadic people of mountainous central Namibia. They speak a Khoisan (click) language, but culturally they are more like the peoples of central and western Africa, though their origin is obscure. When first encountered by Europeans, in the 17th and 18th centuries, many of the

  • Damaraland (historical region, Namibia)

    Damaraland, historical region of Namibia; the name is in part a misnomer, as it was originally applied to lands of north-central Namibia predominantly occupied by the Herero and Khoisan (Hottentot) people rather than the Bergdama (Damara), the latter having been displaced and subjugated by the

  • Damaraland mole rat (rodent)

    eusocial species: …rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the Damaraland mole rat (Cryptomys damarensis), are the only vertebrates that engage in truly eusocial behaviour.

  • Damaran Belt (geological region, Africa)

    Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: Damaran belts in Africa, the Labrador Trough in Canada, and the Eastern Ghats belt in India. Several small relict areas, spanning a few hundred kilometres across, exist within or against Phanerozoic orogenic belts and include the Lofoten islands of Norway, the

  • Damari, Shoshana (Israeli singer)

    Shoshana Damari, Israeli singer (born 1923, Damar, Yemen—died Feb. 14, 2006, Tel Aviv, Israel), introduced pop music to Israel in 1948 and helped to create a unique sense of cultural identity for the newly formed state. Damari was known for her distinctive Yemenite accent and Middle Eastern s

  • ?amaru (drum)

    drum: The modern Indian damaru is an hourglass-shaped clapper drum—when it is twisted its heads are struck by the ends of one or two cords attached to the shell. Barrel and shallow-nailed drums are particularly associated with India and East Asia; notable are the taiko drums of Japan, made…

  • Damas, Léon (French Guiana writer)

    Negritude: …Aimé Césaire from Martinique and Léon Damas from French Guiana, began to examine Western values critically and to reassess African culture.

  • Damascene, Saint John (Christian saint)

    Saint John of Damascus, ; Western feast day December 4), Eastern monk and theological doctor of the Greek and Latin churches whose treatises on the veneration of sacred images placed him in the forefront of the 8th-century Iconoclastic Controversy, and whose theological synthesis made him a

  • damascening (art)

    Damascening, art of encrusting gold, silver, or copper wire on the surface of iron, steel, bronze, or brass. A narrow undercut is made in the surface of the metal with a chisel and the wire forced into the undercut by means of a hammer. The name is derived from the city of Damascus, which was

  • Damascius (Greek philosopher)

    Damascius, Greek Neoplatonist philosopher and last in the succession of Platonic scholars at the Greek Academy at Athens, which was founded by Plato about 387 bc. A pupil and close friend of the Greek philosopher Isidore of Alexandria, whose biography he wrote, Damascius became head of the Academy

  • Damascus (national capital, Syria)

    Damascus, city, capital of Syria. Located in the southwestern corner of the country, it has been called the “pearl of the East,” praised for its beauty and lushness; the 10th-century traveler and geographer al-Maqdisī lauded the city as ranking among the four earthly paradises. Upon visiting the

  • Damascus carpet

    Damascus rug, usually small floor covering, often attributed to Damascus, Syria, in the 16th or 17th century in continuation of the rug art of the Mamlūk rulers of that land. The usual Damascus field pattern is a grid of small squares or rectangles (hence the European term chessboard carpets), each

  • Damascus Document (biblical literature)

    Damascus Document, one of the most important extant works of the ancient Essene community of Jews at Qumrān in Palestine. The Essenes fled to the Judaean desert wilderness around Qumrān during Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ persecution of Palestinian Jews from 175 to 164/163 bc. Though a precise date f

  • Damascus Gate (gate, Jerusalem)

    Jerusalem: Architecture: …in the wall: the New, Damascus, and Herod’s gates to the north, the St. Stephen’s (or Lion’s) Gate to the east, the Dung and Zion gates to the south, and the Jaffa Gate to the west. An eighth gate, the Golden Gate, to the east, remains sealed, however, for it…

  • Damascus International Airport (airport, Damascus, Syria)

    Damascus: Transportation: Damascus International Airport, located some 20 miles (32 km) east of the city, is served by many commercial airlines that offer direct flights to major regional and international cities. Inner-city transportation is largely provided by motor vehicles. Animal-drawn carts, which once gave the city a…

  • Damascus rug

    Damascus rug, usually small floor covering, often attributed to Damascus, Syria, in the 16th or 17th century in continuation of the rug art of the Mamlūk rulers of that land. The usual Damascus field pattern is a grid of small squares or rectangles (hence the European term chessboard carpets), each

  • Damascus Securities Exchange (stock exchange, Damascus, Syria)

    Syria: Finance: A stock exchange, the Damascus Securities Exchange, formally opened for trading in Damascus in 2009.

  • Damascus steel (metallurgy)

    Damascus steel, one of the famous steels of the pre-industrial era, typically made into weapon blades. Manufacture involved a secret carburization process in which a form of wrought iron was heated to red heat in contact with various carbonaceous materials in closed vessels. The result was an

  • Damascus ware

    Islamic arts: Other arts: of pottery: ?znik, Rhodian, and Damascus ware. Both in technique and in design, Ottoman ceramics are the only major examples of pottery produced in the late Islamic period.

  • Damascus, Great Mosque of (mosque, Damascus, Syria)

    Great Mosque of Damascus, the earliest surviving stone mosque, built between ad 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd I. The mosque stands on the site of a 1st-century Hellenic temple to Jupiter and of a later church of St. John the Baptist. Some Syrio-Roman fragments remain in the structure,

  • Damascus, Siege of (Second Crusade [1148])

    Siege of Damascus, (23–28 July 1148). The defeat of the Second Crusade at Damascus ensured that the Christian crusader states in the Holy Land would remain on the defensive for the foreseeable future. There was no longer any realistic prospect of expansion so the Christians were confined to small

  • Damascus, University of (university, Damascus, Syria)

    Damascus: Education: The University of Damascus was founded in 1923 through the joining of four older institutions of higher learning and was a pioneer in the Arab world for introducing Arabic as the sole language of instruction and research. It is the largest and oldest of Syria’s universities,…

  • damask

    Damask, patterned textile, deriving its name from the fine patterned fabrics produced in Damascus (Syria) in the European Middle Ages. True damask was originally wholly of silk, but gradually the name came to be applied to a certain type of patterned fabric regardless of fibre. Single damask has

  • damask rose (plant)

    rose: Major species and hybrids: The flowers of the damask rose (Rosa ×damascena) and several other species are the source of attar of roses used in perfumes. Many species, particularly the rugosa rose (R. rugosa), produce edible rose hips, which are a rich source of vitamin C and are sometimes used in preserves.

  • damasked steel (metallurgy)

    Damascus steel, one of the famous steels of the pre-industrial era, typically made into weapon blades. Manufacture involved a secret carburization process in which a form of wrought iron was heated to red heat in contact with various carbonaceous materials in closed vessels. The result was an

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