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  • dewan (Islamic government unit)

    Divan, in Islāmic societies, a “register,” or logbook, and later a “finance department,” “government bureau,” or “administration.” The first divan appeared under the caliph ?Umar I (634–644) as a pensions list, recording free Arab warriors entitled to a share of the spoils of war. Out of rents and

  • Dewan Negara (Malaysian government)

    Malaysia: Constitutional framework: …federal legislature, consisting of the Senate (Dewan Negara) as the upper house and the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) as the lower. The paramount ruler appoints a prime minister from among the members of the House of Representatives. On the advice of the prime minister, the monarch then appoints the…

  • Dewan Rakyat (Malaysian government)

    Malaysia: Constitutional framework: …the upper house and the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) as the lower. The paramount ruler appoints a prime minister from among the members of the House of Representatives. On the advice of the prime minister, the monarch then appoints the other ministers who make up the cabinet. The number…

  • Dewantara, Ki Hadjar (Indonesian educator)

    Ki Hadjar Dewantoro, founder of the Taman Siswa (literally “Garden of Students”) school system, an influential and widespread network of schools that encouraged modernization but also promoted indigenous Indonesian culture. Dewantoro was born into a noble family of Yogyakarta and attended a

  • Dewantoro, Ki Hadjar (Indonesian educator)

    Ki Hadjar Dewantoro, founder of the Taman Siswa (literally “Garden of Students”) school system, an influential and widespread network of schools that encouraged modernization but also promoted indigenous Indonesian culture. Dewantoro was born into a noble family of Yogyakarta and attended a

  • Dewar benzene (chemical compound)

    physical science: Chemistry: The other three (now called Dewar structures for the British chemist and physicist James Dewar, though they were first suggested by H. Wichelhaus in 1869) have one longer bond going across the ring. Pauling and Dewar described their model as involving resonance between the five structures. According to quantum mechanics,…

  • Dewar vessel

    Vacuum flask, vessel with double walls, the space between which is evacuated. It was invented by the British chemist and physicist Sir James Dewar in the 1890s. Thermos is a proprietary name applied to a form protected by a metal casing. The vacuum flask was devised to preserve liquefied gases by

  • Dewar, Donald Campbell (Scottish politician)

    Donald Campbell Dewar, U.K. statesman (born Aug. 21, 1937, Glasgow, Scot.—died Oct. 11, 2000, Edinburgh, Scot.), was for many years a leading proponent of Scottish devolution; he saw his desire become reality and in the process became first minister of Scotland’s first Parliament in almost 300 y

  • Dewar, Sir James (British scientist)

    Sir James Dewar, British chemist and physicist whose study of low-temperature phenomena entailed the use of a double-walled vacuum flask of his own design which has been named for him. Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Dewar became a professor at the University of Cambridge (1875) and at the

  • Dewas (India)

    Dewas, city, west-central Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is located on the Malwa Plateau at the foot of the conical Chamunda Hill, which rises to the Devi Vashini shrine. The earliest reference to Dewas occurs in the 12th-century epic poem Prithviraj Rasau by Chand Bardai of Lahore (now in

  • dewatering (industrial process)

    mineral processing: Dewatering: Concentrates and tailings produced by the methods outlined above must be dewatered in order to convert the pulps to a transportable state. In addition, the water can be recycled into the existing water circuits of the processing plant, greatly reducing the demand for expensive…

  • Dewaya Genshichi (Japanese painter)

    Kaigetsudō Ando, Japanese painter of the Edo (Tokugawa) period who was an early practitioner of the genre known as ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”). Among other subjects, these pictures provided scenes from the pleasure quarter, or entertainment district, of such cities as Edo or ōsaka.

  • dewberry (fruit)

    Dewberry, any of several species of trailing blackberries of the genus Rubus in the rose family (Rosaceae). Dewberries are found throughout North America and northern Europe. They bear edible fruits that can be eaten raw or baked into cobblers or pies or made into preserves. They are occasionally

  • Dewey Decimal Classification (library science)

    Dewey Decimal Classification, system for organizing the contents of a library based on the division of all knowledge into 10 groups, with each group assigned 100 numbers. The 10 main groups are: 000–099, general works; 100–199, philosophy and psychology; 200–299, religion; 300–399, social sciences;

  • Dewey Decimal System of Classification (library science)

    Dewey Decimal Classification, system for organizing the contents of a library based on the division of all knowledge into 10 groups, with each group assigned 100 numbers. The 10 main groups are: 000–099, general works; 100–199, philosophy and psychology; 200–299, religion; 300–399, social sciences;

  • Dewey Phillips

    Broadcasting on WHBQ in Memphis six nights a week from 9:00 pm until midnight, Dewey Phillips was tremendously popular with both black and white listeners in the 1950s. An excitable, flamboyant good old boy who seemed to have stepped from the pages of Al Capp’s “Li’l Abner” comic strips but who

  • Dewey School (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, a pioneer school in the progressive education movement in the United States. The original University Elementary School was founded in Chicago in 1896 by American educator John Dewey as a research and demonstration centre for the Department of Pedagogy at

  • Dewey, George (United States naval commander)

    George Dewey, U.S. naval commander who defeated the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War (1898). A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1858, Dewey was commissioned a lieutenant three years later. In the U.S. Civil War (1861–65), he

  • Dewey, John (American philosopher and educator)

    John Dewey, American philosopher and educator who was a founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States. Dewey graduated with a bachelor’s degree from the University of Vermont

  • Dewey, Melvil (American librarian)

    Melvil Dewey, American librarian who devised the Dewey Decimal Classification for library cataloging and, probably more than any other individual, was responsible for the development of library science in the United States. Dewey graduated in 1874 from Amherst College and became acting librarian at

  • Dewey, Thomas E. (governor of New York)

    Thomas E. Dewey, vigorous American prosecuting attorney whose successful racket-busting career won him three terms as governor of New York (1943–55). A longtime Republican leader, he was his party’s presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948 but lost in both elections. Dewey graduated from the

  • Dewey, Thomas Edmund (governor of New York)

    Thomas E. Dewey, vigorous American prosecuting attorney whose successful racket-busting career won him three terms as governor of New York (1943–55). A longtime Republican leader, he was his party’s presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948 but lost in both elections. Dewey graduated from the

  • Dewhurst, Colleen (American actress)

    Colleen Dewhurst, American actress who was the leading Broadway interpreter of the plays of Eugene O’Neill in the second half of the 20th century. The daughter of a professional hockey player, Dewhurst eventually moved to New York City, where she studied acting at the American Academy of Dramatic

  • Dewi (patron saint of Wales)

    St. David, ; feast day March 1), patron saint of Wales. Little is known of his life. According to the hagiography (c. 1090) by the Welsh scholar Rhygyfarch, he was the son of the chieftain Sant, who raped David’s mother, St. Non. Educated at Henfynyw, Cardigan, he seemingly took a prominent part in

  • deWilde, Brandon (American actor)

    John Frankenheimer: Films of the 1960s: …whose adoring younger brother (Brandon deWilde) gradually comes to despise him. Frankenheimer’s first popular success was Birdman of Alcatraz (1962), a biopic about convicted killer Robert Stroud, who became a respected ornithologist while serving a life sentence. The film—shot in black-and-white, as were all of Frankenheimer’s works to that…

  • Dewing, Thomas W. (American artist)

    the Ten: Alden Weir, Thomas W. Dewing, Joseph De Camp, Frank W. Benson, Willard Leroy Metcalf, Edmund Tarbell, Robert Reid, and E.E. Simmons. When Twachtman died in 1902, William Merritt Chase replaced him.

  • Dewitt’s Corner, Treaty of (United States history)

    Cherokee: …and South Carolina at the Treaty of DeWitt’s Corner (May 20, 1777) and the Treaty of Long Island of Holston (July 20, 1777).

  • DeWitt, Lydia Maria Adams (American pathologist)

    Lydia Maria Adams DeWitt, American experimental pathologist and investigator of the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. In 1878 she married Alton D. DeWitt, a teacher. Lydia DeWitt earned a medical degree at the University of Michigan in 1898 and taught anatomy there until 1908. She subsequently taught

  • DeWitt–Chestnut Apartments (buildings, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    construction: Use of reinforced concrete: …by Fazlur Khan in the DeWitt–Chestnut Apartments (1963) in Chicago; the building rises 43 stories (116 metres, or 387 feet). Lateral stability was achieved by closely spaced columns placed around the building perimeter and connected together by deep beams. The next step in concrete high-rise construction was the combination of…

  • dewlap (anatomy)

    kouprey: …and have a very large dewlap (present, though smaller, in the other two). However, the kouprey’s dorsal hump is less developed, and the tail is longer. Cows and young are a different colour from females of the banteng and gaur, being gray with a darker underside and darker forelegs. Kouprey…

  • DeWolfe, Chris (American entrepreneur)

    Myspace: Tom Anderson and Chris DeWolfe, employees of the Internet marketing company eUniverse (later Intermix Media), created Myspace in 2003. It quickly distinguished itself from established social networking sites by allowing—and in fact encouraging—musical artists to use the site to promote themselves, earning Myspace a hip cachet and making…

  • Dewsbury (England, United Kingdom)

    Dewsbury, town in Kirklees metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of West Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It lies along the River Calder 9 miles (14 km) south-southwest of Leeds. Dewsbury (which was mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086) had a woolen industry as early as

  • Dewson, Mary Williams (American economist)

    Mary Williams Dewson, American economist and political organizer, closely associated with the political campaigns and administrative programs of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Dewson graduated from Wellesley (Massachusetts) College in 1897. For three years she worked as a research economist

  • dewy pine (plant)

    carnivorous plant: Major families: Once classified within Droseraceae, the Portuguese sundew (Drosophyllum lusitanicum) is now placed within its own family, Drosophyllaceae (order Caryophyllales), of which it is the only species.

  • dexamethasone (chemistry)

    steroid: Glucocorticoids and cortisol: Cortisol analogs, such as dexamethasone, are used to treat many inflammatory and rheumatic diseases, to suppress the immune response in allergies and in organ transplantation, and to delay the progress of leukemia. They are also widely used for treating local inflammatory reactions. A synthetic steroid of a quite different…

  • Dexedrine (drug)

    amphetamine: Dextroamphetamine sulfate, marketed under the name Dexedrine, is the more active of the two optically isomeric forms in which amphetamine exists. Other members of the amphetamine series include methamphetamine and benzphetamine.

  • Dexippus, Publius Herennius (Roman historian)

    Publius Herennius Dexippus, Roman historian and Athenian statesman, one of the principal authorities for the history of the mid-3rd century ad. The Bibliotheca, a 9th-century encyclopaedia by Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, credits Dexippus with three major works: a four-book history of the

  • Dexter (American television program)

    John Lithgow: 3rd Rock from the Sun and return to the stage: …the popular television crime drama Dexter, and his chilling portrayal of serial killer Arthur Mitchell earned him another Emmy.

  • dexter (heraldry)

    heraldry: The elements and grammar of heraldic design: The terms dexter and sinister mean merely “right” and “left.” A shield is understood to be as if held by a user whom the beholder is facing. Thus the side of the shield facing the beholder’s left is the dexter, or right-hand side, and that opposite it…

  • Dexter, Brad (American actor)

    The Magnificent Seven: …a pistol; and Harry (Brad Dexter), an opportunistic fortune hunter who mistakenly believes that Chris will lead them to hidden Mexican treasure. The seven men train the villagers in the art of gunplay and successfully repulse attacks from Calvera and his gang. In the final confrontation, the village is…

  • Dexter, Colin (British author)

    Colin Dexter, British author who wrote 13 acclaimed mystery novels featuring the erudite and curmudgeonly Chief Inspector Morse; the novels inspired the popular British television series Inspector Morse (1987–2000) and two spin-off series. Dexter earned (1953) a bachelor’s degree and (1958) a

  • Dexter, John (British director)

    John Dexter, British director of stage plays and operas. Dexter, who left school at the age of 14, served in the British army during World War II and began acting while in the army. In 1957 he joined the Royal Court Theatre in London as an associate director; he then became associate director of

  • Dexter, Norman Colin (British author)

    Colin Dexter, British author who wrote 13 acclaimed mystery novels featuring the erudite and curmudgeonly Chief Inspector Morse; the novels inspired the popular British television series Inspector Morse (1987–2000) and two spin-off series. Dexter earned (1953) a bachelor’s degree and (1958) a

  • dexterity

    psychomotor learning: Simple components of bodily skills: …be broadly referred to as manual dexterity, which includes fine finger dexterity, arm-wrist speed, and aiming ability. Motor abilities are also influenced by strength, of which there are several kinds, including static strength (pressure measured in pounds exerted against an immovable object) and dynamic strength (moving the limbs with force).…

  • Dextra, Zacharias (Dutch potter)

    pottery: The Netherlands: Overglaze colours were introduced by Zacharias Dextra about 1720, and the Chinese famille rose patterns were frequently imitated. Among the rarer and more showy examples of delft may be numbered the Delft dorée, on which gilding is lavish, and the Delft noir, which has a black ground (suggested by Chinese…

  • dextran (chemical compound)

    carbohydrate: Homopolysaccharides: Dextrans, a group of polysaccharides composed of glucose, are secreted by certain strains of bacteria as slimes. The structure of an individual dextran varies with the strain of microorganism. Dextrans can be used as plasma expanders (substitutes for whole blood) in cases of severe shock.…

  • Dextre (robot)

    International Space Station: …astronauts brought the Canadian robot, Dextre, which was so sophisticated that it would be able to perform tasks that previously would have required astronauts to make space walks, and the first part of Kibo. In June 2008 the main part of Kibo was installed.

  • dextrin (chemical compound)

    Dextrin, class of substances prepared by the incomplete hydrolysis of starch or by the heating of dry starch. Dextrins are used chiefly as adhesives and as sizing agents for textiles and

  • dextrinogenic amylase (enzyme)

    amylase: Alpha-amylase is widespread among living organisms. In the digestive systems of humans and many other mammals, an alpha-amylase called ptyalin is produced by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. The optimum pH of alpha-amylase is

  • dextroamphetamine (drug)

    amphetamine: Dextroamphetamine sulfate, marketed under the name Dexedrine, is the more active of the two optically isomeric forms in which amphetamine exists. Other members of the amphetamine series include methamphetamine and benzphetamine.

  • dextroamphetamine sulfate (drug)

    amphetamine: Dextroamphetamine sulfate, marketed under the name Dexedrine, is the more active of the two optically isomeric forms in which amphetamine exists. Other members of the amphetamine series include methamphetamine and benzphetamine.

  • dextromethorphan (drug)

    Dextromethorphan, synthetic drug related to morphine and used in medicine as a cough suppressant. The hydrobromide salt of dextromethorphan occurs as white crystals or a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. It acts upon the central nervous system to suppress the

  • dextromethorphan hydrobromide (drug)

    dextromethorphan: The hydrobromide salt of dextromethorphan occurs as white crystals or a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. It acts upon the central nervous system to suppress the cough reflex. The drug does not produce addiction or central depression, as do a number of…

  • dextrorotatory (chemical compound)

    optical activity: …specific rotation is described as dextrorotatory and denoted by the prefix d or (+); one with a negative specific rotation is levorotatory, designated by the prefix l or (-).

  • dextrose (biochemistry)

    Glucose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell

  • dextrose equivalent (food processing)

    cereal processing: Sweeteners: (dextrose equivalents), and confectionery syrups have a D.E. of about 36 to 55, while the fuller conversion of products with D.E. of 96 to 99 can be made for the production of almost pure glucose or dextrose, used in many food products.

  • dey (Ottoman leader)

    Dey, in the Ottoman provinces of Algiers and Tunis, an honorary title conferred upon exceptionally able corsair leaders; also, a lower rank of officer in the Janissaries. In late 16th-century Tunis, a dey commanded the army and eventually was in sole control of the state, but by 1705 the title had

  • Dey, Frederic Van Rensselaer (American author)

    Nick Carter: …character was further developed by Frederic Van Rensselaer Dey, who from 1892 (The Piano Box Mystery) to 1913 (The Spider’s Parlor) wrote some 500 novellas featuring Carter. Many other authors, among them Johnston McCulley (creator of the character Zorro) and Martin Cruz Smith (author of Gorky Park), wrote Nick Carter…

  • Deyssel, Lodewijk van (Dutch author)

    Lodewijk van Deyssel, leading Dutch writer and critic of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The son of J.A. Alberdingk Thijm (who promoted a Roman Catholic cultural revival in the Netherlands), he joined the largely agnostic individualistic group associated with the avant-garde literary

  • Deyverdun, Georges (Swiss author)

    Edward Gibbon: Life: …friendship with a young Swiss, Georges Deyverdun, and also fell in love with and rashly plighted himself to Suzanne Curchod, a pastor’s daughter of great charm and intelligence. In 1758 his father called Gibbon home shortly before his 21st birthday and settled an annuity of £300 on him. On the…

  • Dez Dam (dam, Iran)

    Dez Dam, an arch dam across the Dez River in Iran, completed in 1963. The dam is 666 feet (203 m) high, 696 feet (212 m) wide at the crest, and has a volume of 647,000 cubic yards (495,000 cubic m). Until the late 1960s it was the largest Iranian development

  • Dez River (river, Iran)

    Kārūn River: …to its main tributary, the Dez. Most of the area is mountainous, forming part of the limestone Zagros ranges.

  • Dezfūl (Iran)

    Dezfūl, city, southwestern Iran. It lies on the high left bank of the Dez River, 469 feet (143 metres) in elevation, close to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains. The name, which means “fort-bridge,” is derived from structures the Sāsānians built there; still spanning the river is the imposing

  • Dezhn?v, Semyon Ivanov (Russian explorer)

    Semyon Ivanov Dezhnyov, Russian explorer, the first European known to have sailed through the Bering Strait. Dezhnyov served as a Cossack in Siberia, where he traveled a great deal in the north beginning in the early 1640s. In 1648 he sailed from the Kolyma River eastward to the Bering Strait,

  • Dezhnyov, Cape (cape, Russia)

    Cape Dezhnyov, cape, extreme eastern Russia. Cape Dezhnyov is the easternmost point of the Chukchi Peninsula and of the entire Eurasian landmass. It is separated from Cape Prince of Wales in Alaska by the Bering Strait. The Russian name was given in 1879 in honour of a Russian explorer S.I.

  • Dezhnyov, Semyon Ivanov (Russian explorer)

    Semyon Ivanov Dezhnyov, Russian explorer, the first European known to have sailed through the Bering Strait. Dezhnyov served as a Cossack in Siberia, where he traveled a great deal in the north beginning in the early 1640s. In 1648 he sailed from the Kolyma River eastward to the Bering Strait,

  • Dezhou (China)

    Dezhou, city, northwestern Shandong sheng (province), northeast-central China. It is located on the Southern (Yongji) Canal, just east of the Wei River and the border with Hebei province. The Dezhou area was part of a county named Ge during the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce). Changhe county was then

  • Dezong (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Dezong, temple name (miaohao) of the 10th emperor (reigned 779–805) of the Tang dynasty and the only emperor in the latter half of the dynasty to reign more than 20 years. In spite of his long reign, he never successfully controlled the militarists who commanded the provinces and ignored imperial

  • Dezong (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Guangxu, reign name (nianhao) of the ninth emperor (reigned 1874/75–1908) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign the empress dowager Cixi (1835–1908) totally dominated the government and thereby prevented the young emperor from modernizing and reforming the deteriorating imperial

  • DF (instrument)

    Direction finder, radio receiver and antenna system for determining the direction of the source of a radio signal. A direction finder (DF) can be used by an aircraft or ship as a navigational aid. This is accomplished by measuring the direction (bearing) of at least two transmitters whose locations

  • Dfa climate (climatology)

    humid continental climate: …the southern margin of the Dfa region. Winter precipitation often occurs in the form of snow, and a continuous snow cover is established for from one to four months in many parts of the region, especially in the north. This snow often arrives in conjunction with high winds from an…

  • DFD meat

    meat processing: DFD meat: Dark, firm, and dry (DFD) meat is the result of an ultimate pH that is higher than normal. Carcasses that produce DFD meat are usually referred to as dark cutters. DFD meat is often the result of animals experiencing extreme stress or exercise of the…

  • DFL (political party, United States)

    Minnesota: Constitutional framework: …20th and early 21st centuries—the Democratic–Farmer–Labor (DFL) Party and the Republican Party—are amalgams from this tradition. The DFL Party was formed in 1944 by the more traditional Democrats and the reformist Farmer–Labor Party, founded in 1918. The state’s Republican Party was established in 1855 in an effort to attract more…

  • DFLP (Palestinian political organization)

    Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), one of several organizations associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO); it engaged in acts of terrorism in the 1970s and ’80s and originally maintained a Marxist-Leninist orientation, believing the peasants and the working

  • DFMO (drug)

    Eflornithine, drug used to treat late-stage African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Eflornithine is effective only against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes Gambian (or West African) sleeping sickness. It is not effective against T. brucei rhodesiense, which causes Rhodesian (or East

  • DFTD (animal disease)

    Tasmanian devil: …by a contagious cancer called devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), which produces large, often grotesque tumours around the head and mouth. The tumours grow large enough to interfere with the animal’s ability to eat, resulting in starvation. This, in combination with the deleterious physiological effects of the cancer, leads to…

  • DG (Dutch record company)

    Philips Electronics NV: …in record labels such as Deutsche Grammophon, Decca, and Motown through its PolyGram subsidiary (sold in 1998). Philips was much less successful in entering the computer business. By the time the company released its P-1000 mainframe system in the mid-1960s, the IBM 360 was well established as the market standard.…

  • Dga’-ldan (Mongolian ruler)

    Dga’-ldan, leader of the Dzungar tribes of Mongols (reigned 1676–97). He conquered an empire that included Tibet in the southwest and ranged across Central Asia to the borders of Russia on the northeast. Dga’-ldan was a descendant of Esen, a Mongol chieftain who harassed the northern border of

  • Dga’-ldan Monastery (monastery, Dga’-ldan, China)

    Tibet: The Dge-lugs-pa (Yellow Hat sect): …founded his own monastery at Dga’-ldan, devoted to the restoration of strict monastic discipline. Tsong-kha-pa’s disciplinary reform appealed to people weary of rivalry and strife between wealthy monasteries. Tsong-kha-pa probably did not imagine that his disciples would form a new sect and join in that rivalry, but, after his death,…

  • DGB (German trade union)

    German Trade Union Federation, dominant union organization in Germany. The DGB was founded in Munich in 1949 and soon became the largest labour organization in West Germany, with 16 constituent unions. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, workers of the former East Germany were incorporated

  • Dge-’dun-grub-pa (Dalai Lama)

    Dalai Lama: …first of the line was Dge-’dun-grub-pa (1391–1475), founder and abbot of Tashilhunpo monastery (central Tibet). In accordance with the belief in reincarnate lamas, which began to develop in the 14th century, his successors were conceived as his rebirths and came to be regarded as physical manifestations of the compassionate bodhisattva…

  • Dge-’dun-rgya-mtsho (Dalai Lama)

    Dalai Lama: …head of the Dge-lugs-pa order, Dge-’dun-rgya-mtsho (1475–1542), became the head abbot of the ’Bras-spungs (Drepung) monastery on the outskirts of Lhasa, which thenceforward was the principal seat of the Dalai Lama. His successor, Bsod-nams-rgya-mtsho (1543–88), while on a visit to the Mongol chief Altan Khan, received from that ruler the…

  • Dge-lugs-pa (Buddhist sect)

    Dge-lugs-pa, since the 17th century, the predominant Buddhist order in Tibet and the sect of the Dalai and Pa?chen lamas. The Dge-lugs-pa sect was founded in the late 14th century by Tsong-kha-pa, who was himself a member of the austere Bka’-gdams-pa school. Tsong-kha-pa’s reforms represented a r

  • DGI (Cuban secret service)

    DGI, the secret intelligence agency of Cuba. The agency was established with the help of the Soviet KGB in 1961, following Fidel Castro’s rise to power. The DGI provided Castro with advanced warning of the Bay of Pigs invasion backed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in 1962. The agency is r

  • DGI (pathology)

    gonorrhea: Symptoms: …sometimes enter the bloodstream, causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) in virtually any organ system. In both male and female, arthritis is the most common manifestation of DGI. The process usually settles in one or two joints and may result in permanent disability in the absence of treatment. Involvement of the…

  • Dgra-lha skyes-gcig-bu (Buddhist deity)

    Five Great Kings: …rides a black horse; (5) Dgra-lha skyes-gcig-bu, the “king of speech,” who resides in the western quarter, is red and rides a black mule.

  • DGSE (French government agency)

    DGSE, (“External Documentation and Counterespionage Service”), secret intelligence and counterintelligence service that operates under the defense ministry of the French government. This agency was established in 1947 to combine under one head a variety of separate agencies, some dating from the

  • Dgu-gtor (Tibetan festival)

    Tibet: Festivals: The Dgu-gtor festival, or festival of the banishment of evil spirits, takes place on the 29th day of the last month of the Tibetan year. At night a bowl of flour soup and a bunch of burning straws are taken into every room of every house,…

  • DH (baseball)

    baseball: Records and statistics: …with the advent of the designated hitter rule (replacing the pitcher in the batting order with a better-hitting player) in the American League in 1973, all served to partially reverse the decline in offensive productivity.

  • DH (United Kingdom government)

    U.K. Department of Health, branch of the government of the United Kingdom concerned with the maintenance of public health. The Department of Health (DH) provides leadership for the National Health Service (NHS) and for the government’s social care and public health agendas. The DH has issue-based

  • DHA (chemical compound)

    nutritional disease: Dietary fat: …acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are derived from alpha-linolenic acid, a shorter-chain member of the same family. Fatty fish such as salmon, herring, sardines, mackerel, and tuna are high in both EPA and DHA. Flaxseed is an excellent source of alpha-linolenic acid, which the body

  • Dhahab, Wādī Al- (region, Western Sahara, Africa)

    Río de Oro, southern geographic region of Western Sahara, northwest Africa. It has an area of 71,000 square miles (184,000 square km) and lies between Cape Blanco and latitude 26° N, near Cape Bojador. The climate is very arid, with virtually no precipitation, and there are extreme variations of

  • Dhahabī, al- (ruler of Morocco)

    A?mad al-Man?ūr, sixth ruler of the Sa?dī dynasty, which he raised to its zenith of power by his policy of centralization and astute diplomacy. Al-Man?ūr resisted the demands of his nominal suzerain, the Ottoman sultan, by playing off the European powers, namely, France, Portugal, Spain, and

  • Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    Dhahran, town, northeastern Saudi Arabia. It is located in the Dammam oil field, just south of the Persian Gulf port of Dammam and near the site of the original discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia in 1938. It now serves as the administrative headquarters of Saudi Aramco. A major U.S. Air Force

  • dhak tree (plant)

    Dhaka: History: …said to refer to the dhak tree, once common in the area, or to Dhakeshwari (“The Hidden Goddess”), whose shrine is located in the western part of the city. Although the city’s history can be traced to the 1st millennium ce, the city did not rise to prominence until the…

  • Dhaka (national capital, Bangladesh)

    Dhaka, city and capital of Bangladesh. It is located just north of the Buriganga River, a channel of the Dhaleswari River, in the south-central part of the country. Dhaka is Bangladesh’s most populous city and is one of the largest metropolises in South Asia. Pop. (2001) city, 5,333,571; metro.

  • Dhaka, University of (university, Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Dhaka: The contemporary city: …several universities, among which the University of Dhaka (1921), the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (1962), and Jahangirnagar University (1970) are prominent. Dhaka is also home to numerous government colleges, a nuclear-science training and research centre, the national library, a museum, and the national art gallery. In addition, the…

  • Dhakhlrat al-mulūk (work by Hamadānī)

    al-Hamadānī: Al-Hamadānī’s best-known work is his Dhakhīrat al-mulūk (“Treatise on the State”)—a study of political ethics. His burial place, Kulab, is still a pilgrimage site.

  • Dhaleshwari River (river, India)

    Rupnarayan River, river in West Bengal state, northeastern India. It rises as the Dhaleshwari (Dhalkisor) in the Chota Nagpur plateau foothills northeast of the city of Purulia and follows a tortuous southeasterly course past the city of Bankura, where it is known as the Dwarkeswar. It is joined by

  • Dhaleswari River (river, Bangladesh)

    Dhaleswari River, river of central Bangladesh. The Dhaleswari is an arm of the Jamuna River (the main course of the Brahmaputra River), which it leaves south-southwest of Tangail. It then meanders in a southeasterly direction for about 100 miles (160 km) through a heavily cultivated jute and rice

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