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  • decapod (crustacean)

    Decapod, (order Decapoda), any of more than 8,000 species of crustaceans (phylum Arthropoda) that include shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, hermit crabs, and crabs. The presence of five pairs of thoracic legs (pereiopods) is the basis for the name decapod (from the Greek meaning “10 legs”). Members of

  • Decapoda (crustacean)

    Decapod, (order Decapoda), any of more than 8,000 species of crustaceans (phylum Arthropoda) that include shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, hermit crabs, and crabs. The presence of five pairs of thoracic legs (pereiopods) is the basis for the name decapod (from the Greek meaning “10 legs”). Members of

  • Decapolis (ancient Greek league, Palestine)

    Decapolis, league of 10 ancient Greek cities in eastern Palestine that was formed after the Roman conquest of Palestine in 63 bc, when Pompey the Great reorganized the Middle East to Rome’s advantage and to his own. The name Decapolis also denotes the roughly contiguous territory formed by these

  • DeCarava, Roy (American photographer)

    Roy DeCarava, American photographer whose images of African Americans chronicle subjects such as daily life in Harlem, the civil rights movement, and jazz musicians. DeCarava won a scholarship to study at the Cooper Union School of Art (1938–40), but he left after two years to attend the more

  • DeCarava, Roy Rudolph (American photographer)

    Roy DeCarava, American photographer whose images of African Americans chronicle subjects such as daily life in Harlem, the civil rights movement, and jazz musicians. DeCarava won a scholarship to study at the Cooper Union School of Art (1938–40), but he left after two years to attend the more

  • decarburization

    molybdenum processing: Ferromolybdenum: …a metallothermic process or a carbon-reduction process in electric furnaces. Because the latter process has the inherent disadvantage of introducing a high carbon content into the FeMo alloy, the thermic process, in which aluminum and silicon metals are used for the reduction of a charge consisting of a mixture of…

  • Decas decadum, Sive plagiariorum et pseudonymorum centuria (work by Fabricius)

    Johann Albert Fabricius: …philosophy and published anonymously his Decas decadum, Sive plagiariorum et pseudonymorum centuria, a survey of 100 writers accused of plagiarism or literary mystification. In 1694 he became librarian in Hamburg to J.F. Mayer, an antipietist theologian, and from 1699 until his death he taught at the gymnasium there as professor…

  • decathlon (athletics)

    Decathlon, athletic competition lasting two consecutive days in which contestants take part in 10 track-and-field events. It was introduced as a three-day event at the Olympic Games in 1912. Decathlon events are: (first day) 100-metre dash, running long (broad) jump, shot put, high jump, and

  • decating (fabric finishing)

    textile: Decating: Decating is a process applied to woollens and worsteds, man-made and blended fibre fabrics, and various types of knits. It involves the application of heat and pressure to set or develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set and grain of certain…

  • Decatur (Alabama, United States)

    Decatur, city, seat (1891) of Morgan county, northern Alabama, U.S. It lies along the Tennessee River about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Huntsville. Andrew Jackson gave land grants in the area to soldiers who marched with him to the Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815), and in 1820 the city was

  • Decatur (Georgia, United States)

    Decatur, city, seat (1823) of DeKalb county, northwestern Georgia, U.S. It is an eastern suburb of Atlanta. Named for Stephen Decatur, the American naval hero of the War of 1812, it was originally a trading centre for small farmers, and stone quarrying was an early activity in the surrounding area.

  • Decatur (Illinois, United States)

    Decatur, city, seat (1829) of Macon county, central Illinois, U.S. It lies along a bend in the Sangamon River (there dammed to form Lake Decatur), about halfway between Springfield and Champaign. First settled in 1820, the town was founded in 1829 and was named for the American naval hero Stephen

  • Decatur, Stephen (United States naval officer)

    Stephen Decatur, U.S. naval officer who held important commands in the War of 1812. Replying to a toast after returning from successful engagements abroad (1815), he replied with the famous words: “Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country,

  • decay (dental disease)

    Caries, cavity or decay of a tooth, a localized disease that begins at the surface of the tooth and may progress through the dentine into the pulp cavity. It is believed that the action of microorganisms in the mouth on ingested sugars and carbohydrates produces acids that eat away the enamel. The

  • decay (sound)

    envelope: the attack, sustain, and decay of a sound. Attack transients consist of changes occurring before the sound reaches its steady-state intensity. Sustain refers to the steady state of a sound at its maximum intensity, and decay is the rate at which it fades to silence. In the context of…

  • decay (plant disease)

    Rot, any of several plant diseases, caused by any of hundreds of species of soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and funguslike organisms (Oomycota). Rot diseases are characterized by plant decomposition and putrefaction. The decay may be hard, dry, spongy, watery, mushy, or slimy and may affect any plant

  • decay (biology)

    soap and detergent: Raw materials: …and, because the foam retards biological degradation of organic material in sewage, it caused problems in sewage-water regeneration systems. In countries where sewage water is used for irrigation, the foam was also a problem. Intensive research in the 1960s led to changes in the alkylbenzene sulfonate molecules. The tetrapropylene, which…

  • decay

    Radioactivity, property exhibited by certain types of matter of emitting energy and subatomic particles spontaneously. It is, in essence, an attribute of individual atomic nuclei. An unstable nucleus will decompose spontaneously, or decay, into a more stable configuration but will do so only in a

  • decay constant (nuclear physics)

    Decay constant, proportionality between the size of a population of radioactive atoms and the rate at which the population decreases because of radioactive decay. Suppose N is the size of a population of radioactive atoms at a given time t, and dN is the amount by which the population decreases in

  • Decay of the Angel, The (novel by Mishima)

    The Sea of Fertility: …Dawn), and Tennin gosui (The Decay of the Angel)—is set in Japan, and together they cover the period from roughly 1912 to the 1960s. Each of them depicts a different reincarnation of the same being: as a young aristocrat in 1912, as a political fanatic in the 1930s, as…

  • decay organism (biology)

    carbon cycle: …as CO2 by decay, or decomposer, organisms (chiefly bacteria and fungi) in a series of microbial transformations.

  • decay rate (radioactivity)

    radioactivity: Radioactive decay is a property of several naturally occurring elements as well as of artificially produced isotopes of the elements. The rate at which a radioactive element decays is expressed in terms of its half-life; i.e., the time required for one-half of any given quantity of…

  • decay time (physics)

    radiation measurement: Scintillators: The decay time determines the rate at which the light is emitted following the excitation and is also characteristic of the particular scintillation material. Decay times range from less than one nanosecond to several microseconds and generally represent the slowest process in the several steps involved…

  • decay transient (music)

    sound: Other effects on tone: …a piano key struck, and decay transients, such as the way the sound of a plucked string dies away, are very important in many instruments, particularly those that are struck or plucked. Vibrato (a periodic slow change in pitch) and tremolo (a periodic slow change in amplitude) also aid the…

  • Decazes, élie, Duc, hertug af Glücksberg (French politician)

    élie, Duke Decazes, French political figure and leader of the moderate constitutional monarchists during the Bourbon Restoration. A lawyer by profession, Decazes had previously served as a local magistrate (1806), a councillor to Louis Bonaparte in Holland (1807), and judge of the Parisian appeals

  • Decca (radio-beam system)

    commercial fishing: Fish finding: …satellite-transmitted position-fixing equipment such as Decca Navigator, Loran, and Satnav. These enable a skipper to return to the precise position where fish are spotted or to a particular location such as a coral reef or where gear has been set. Microprocessor technology allows information from various instruments such as sonar,…

  • Decca Records (American company)

    Decca Records: Shaking, Rattling, and Rolling: Formed as an American division by its British parent company in 1934, Decca was the only major company to stand by its black roster during the 1940s, although most of its artists—including vocal groups (the Mills Brothers and the Ink Spots) and big bands (led…

  • Decca Records: Shaking, Rattling, and Rolling

    Formed as an American division by its British parent company in 1934, Decca was the only major company to stand by its black roster during the 1940s, although most of its artists—including vocal groups (the Mills Brothers and the Ink Spots) and big bands (led by Lionel Hampton and Buddy

  • Deccan (plateau, India)

    Deccan, the entire southern peninsula of India south of the Narmada River, marked centrally by a high triangular tableland. The name derives from the Sanskrit daksina (“south”). The plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, escarpments that meet at the plateau’s southern tip. Its

  • Deccan Chargers (Indian cricket team)

    Indian Premier League: …the Royal Challengers Bangalore, the Deccan Chargers (based in Hyderabad), the Delhi Daredevils, the Punjab XI Kings (Mohali), the Kolkata Knight Riders, and the Rajasthan Royals (Jaipur). In late 2010 two franchises, Rajasthan and Punjab, were expelled from the league by the BCCI for breeches of ownership policy, but they…

  • Deccan Education Society (Indian organization)

    Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Early life and career: …university college after founding the Deccan Education Society (1884), which aimed at educating the masses, especially in the English language; he and his associates considered English to be a powerful force for the dissemination of liberal and democratic ideals.

  • Deccan Plateau (plateau, India)

    Deccan, the entire southern peninsula of India south of the Narmada River, marked centrally by a high triangular tableland. The name derives from the Sanskrit daksina (“south”). The plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, escarpments that meet at the plateau’s southern tip. Its

  • Deccan style (architectural style)

    India: Literature and the arts: The Deccani style, vasara, tended to be an intermixture of the northern and the southern, with early examples at Vatapi, Aihole, and Pattadakal and, later, at Halebid, Belur, and Somnathpur in the vicinity of Mysore. The wealth of the temples made them the focus of attack…

  • Deccan Traps (geological formation, India)

    Cretaceous Period: Mass extinction: …lava, known as the Deccan Traps, occurred in India during the latest Cretaceous. Some paleontologists believe that the carbon dioxide that accompanied these flows created a global greenhouse effect that greatly warmed the planet. Others note that tectonic plate movements caused a major rearrangement of the world’s landmasses, particularly during…

  • Deccani painting (Indian art)

    Deccani painting, style of miniature painting that flourished from the late 16th century among the Deccani sultanates in peninsular India. The style is a sensitive, highly integrated blend of indigenous and foreign art forms. The elongated figures are seemingly related to Vijayanagar wall

  • Decebalus (Dacian king)

    Decebalus, king of the Dacians, a people who lived in the territory known presently as Romania. Decebalus unified the various Dacian tribes into one nation and led them in wars against the Roman emperors Domitian and Trajan. When Decebalus came to power in 85, he immediately organized an army and

  • decedents’ estates, law of (law)

    Probate, in Anglo-American law, the judicial proceedings by which it is determined whether or not a paper purporting to be the last will of a deceased person is the legally valid last will. What appears to be a valid will may not be so: it may have been forged, not executed in the way required by

  • deceit (law)

    white-collar crime: Common characteristics: …they involve the use of deceit and concealment, rather than the application of force or violence, for the illegitimate gain of money, property, or services. A defendant convicted of making false statements in order to obtain a government contract, for example, is considered a white-collar criminal.

  • Decelea (ancient city, Greece)

    Decelea, in ancient Greece, an Attic deme (township) on the east end of Mount Párnis overlooking the Athenian plain. Its traditional friendship with Sparta is traced to the legend of Decelus, the hero for whom the deme was named. Decelus indicated to the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) where Theseus

  • Deceleia (ancient city, Greece)

    Decelea, in ancient Greece, an Attic deme (township) on the east end of Mount Párnis overlooking the Athenian plain. Its traditional friendship with Sparta is traced to the legend of Decelus, the hero for whom the deme was named. Decelus indicated to the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) where Theseus

  • deceleration injury

    Deceleration injury, impact injury to a body within or upon a rapidly moving object caused by the forces exerted when the object is brought to a sudden halt. Deceleration injury can occur in high-speed vehicles when they stop or slow down abruptly or when the occupants of the vehicle are propelled

  • Decem categoriae (pseudo-Augustinian work)

    history of logic: Transmission of Greek logic to the Latin West: The pseudo-Augustinian Decem categoriae (“Ten Categories”) is a late 4th-century Latin paraphrase of a Greek compendium of the Categories. In the late 5th century Martianus Capella’s allegorical De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (The Marriage of Philology and Mercury) contains “On the Art of Dialectic” as book IV.

  • December (month)

    December, twelfth month of the Gregorian calendar. Its name is derived from decem, Latin for “ten,” indicating its position in the early Roman

  • December 7th (film by Ford and Toland [1943])

    John Ford: 1930s to World War II: …Battle of Midway (1942) and December 7th (1943), won Academy Awards for best documentary—and, working for the Office of Strategic Services, he was present at Omaha Beach on D-Day. Having been personally under fire and a witness to slaughter, he was so proud of his military service and status that…

  • December Bride (American television series)

    Harry Morgan: …role on the situation comedy December Bride (1954–59), which led to the development of Pete and Gladys (1960–62), a spin-off focusing on the marriage of his character, Pete Porter. Morgan then starred in the police procedural Dragnet 1967 (1967–70), a revival of an earlier series that had featured his on-screen…

  • December constitution (Austrian history)

    Austria: Ausgleich of 1867: …and became known as the December constitution, lasted until 1918. These laws granted equality before the law and freedom of press, speech, and assembly; they also protected the interests of the various nationalities, stating that

  • Decemberists, The (American musical group)

    The Decemberists, American indie-rock group known for its highly stylized, literate songs. The band’s principal members were lead singer and guitarist Colin Meloy (b. October 5, 1974, Helena, Montana, U.S.), keyboardist and accordionist Jenny Conlee (b. December 12, 1971, Seattle, Washington),

  • Decembrist (Russian history)

    Decembrist, any of the Russian revolutionaries who led an unsuccessful uprising on Dec. 14 (Dec. 26, New Style), 1825, and through their martyrdom provided a source of inspiration to succeeding generations of Russian dissidents. The Decembrists were primarily members of the upper classes who had m

  • Decembrist revolt (Russian history)

    Decembrist, any of the Russian revolutionaries who led an unsuccessful uprising on Dec. 14 (Dec. 26, New Style), 1825, and through their martyrdom provided a source of inspiration to succeeding generations of Russian dissidents. The Decembrists were primarily members of the upper classes who had m

  • Decembrists’ Square (square, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Nicholas I: Ascent to the throne: …in military formation to the Senate Square—now the Decembrist Square—in the heart of the capital. Although the rebellion had failed by nightfall, it meant that Nicholas I ascended the throne over the bodies of some of his subjects and in actual combat with the dreaded revolution.

  • decemviri (ancient Rome)

    Decemviri, (Latin: “ten men”), in ancient Rome, any official commission of 10. The designation is most often used in reference to decemviri legibus scribundis, a temporary legislative commission that supplanted the regular magistracy from 451 to 449 bc. It was directed to construct a code of laws

  • Decency, Legion of (American organization)

    history of the motion picture: The Hollywood studio system: …response to pressure from the Legion of Decency and public protest against the graphic violence and sexual suggestiveness of some sound films (the urban gangster films, for example, and the films of Mae West). The Legion had been established in 1933 by the American bishops of the Roman Catholic church…

  • decentralization (government and politics)

    Devolution, the transfer of power from a central government to subnational (e.g., state, regional, or local) authorities. Devolution usually occurs through conventional statutes rather than through a change in a country’s constitution; thus, unitary systems of government that have devolved powers

  • decentralization (dance)

    Alwin Nikolais: …the related concept of “decentralization,” in which the focal point could be anywhere on the dancer’s body or even outside the body. This was a departure from the traditional opinion that the “centre” of focus was the solar plexus. These theories were developed under Hanya Holm and were displayed…

  • deception (human behaviour)

    gaslighting: …elaborate and insidious technique of deception and psychological manipulation, usually practiced by a single deceiver, or “gaslighter,” on a single victim over an extended period. Its effect is to gradually undermine the victim’s confidence in his own ability to distinguish truth from falsehood, right from wrong, or reality from appearance,…

  • deception (law)

    information system: Computer crime and abuse: …followed by identity theft, an impersonation of the user to gain access to the user’s resources.

  • Deception (film by Rapper [1946])

    Irving Rapper: Heyday at Warner Brothers: …Davis, Rains, and Henreid on Deception, a florid melodrama that was among the director’s best pictures; it was based on Louis Verneuil’s play Monsieur Lamberthier. Davis played a music teacher whose marriage to a cellist (Henreid) is threatened by her former lover (Rains), an egotistical composer.

  • Deception Bay (Queensland, Australia)

    Deception Bay, bay and resort town, southeastern Queensland, Australia. The town of Deception Bay lies about 9 miles (14 km) southeast of Caboolture and 20 miles (32 km) north of Brisbane. The city of Redcliffe is located on the peninsula (Redcliffe Peninsula) that forms the southern limits of the

  • Deception Island (island, Antarctica)

    Deception Island, one of the South Shetland Islands, in the Drake Passage, off the Antarctic Peninsula. It is a sunken volcano, the crater of which, about 10 miles (16 km) in diameter, forms one of the best anchorages in the Antarctic. The harbour, known as Port Foster, has been the central port

  • deceptive cadence (music)

    cadence: A deceptive cadence begins with V, like an authentic cadence, except that it does not end on the tonic. Often the triad built on the sixth degree (VI, the submediant) substitutes for the tonic, with which it shares two of its three pitches. A deceptive cadence…

  • deceptive coloration (biology)

    coloration: Optical functions: deceptive coloration: Deceptive coloration depends on four factors: the coloured organism, hereafter referred to as the organism; its model, which may be the background against which it is concealed; the spectral quality of the illumination; and the visual sensitivity and behaviour of the animal or…

  • Decet Romanum Pontificem (papal bull)

    Martin Luther: Excommunication: >Decet Romanum Pontificem (“It Pleases the Roman Pontiff”), was published on January 3, 1521. Martin Luther was formally declared a heretic. Ordinarily, those condemned as heretics were apprehended by an authority of the secular government and put to death by burning. In Luther’s case, however,…

  • Déchelette, Joseph (French archaeologist)

    Joseph Déchelette, French archaeologist and author of an important work covering the entire field of the prehistory of France, Le Manuel d’archéologie préhistorique, celtique et gallo-romaine (1908–14; “Textbook of Prehistoric, Celtic, and Gallo-Roman Archaeology”). With his uncle, J.-G. Bulliot,

  • Déchirure, La (work by Bauchau)

    Henry Bauchau: His first novel, La Déchirure (1966; “The Tear”), is a multileveled narrative on the loss of his mother viewed against a backdrop of Belgian social change. Le Régiment noir (1972; “The Black Regiment”) follows an exiled European among African American soldiers in the American Civil War. ?dipe sur…

  • decibar (unit of measurement)

    seawater: Density of seawater and pressure: …a pressure of about one decibar (0.1 atmosphere), the pressure in decibars is approximately equal to the depth in metres. (One decibar is one-tenth of a bar, which in turn is equal to 105 newtons per square metre.)

  • decibel (unit of measurement)

    Decibel (dB), unit for expressing the ratio between two physical quantities, usually amounts of acoustic or electric power, or for measuring the relative loudness of sounds. One decibel (0.1 bel) equals 10 times the common logarithm of the power ratio. Expressed as a formula, the intensity of a

  • decidability (logic)

    metalogic: Discoveries about formal mathematical systems: …arrived at sharp concepts of decidability. In one sense, decidability is a property of sets (of sentences): that of being subject (or not) to mechanical methods by which to decide in a finite number of steps, for any closed sentence of a given formal system (e.g., of N), whether it…

  • decidua basalis (biology)

    pregnancy: The uterus and the development of the placenta: …of cells known as the decidua basalis, the maternal component of the mature placenta; it is cast off when the placenta is expelled. The fetal part of the placenta—the villi and their contained blood vessels—is separated from the decidua basalis by a lakelike body of fluid blood. This pool was…

  • deciduate placenta (biology)

    mammal: Implantation, gestation, and birth: …as “afterbirth” (a condition called deciduate) or may be resorbed by the female (nondeciduate). Placentas have been classified on the basis of the relationship between maternal and embryonic tissues. In the simplest nondeciduate placental arrangement, the chorionic villi are in contact with uterine epithelium (the inner surface layer). In the…

  • deciduous forest (ecology)

    Deciduous forest, vegetation composed primarily of broad-leaved trees that shed all their leaves during one season. Deciduous forest is found in three middle-latitude regions with a temperate climate characterized by a winter season and year-round precipitation: eastern North America, western

  • Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America (work by Braun)

    Emma Lucy Braun: Her classic book, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America (1950), thoroughly describes the plants of the deciduous forest biome and the evolution of the forest community from the most recent ice age to the middle of the 20th century.

  • deciduous plant (biology)

    scrubland: Biological productivity: The dominant shrubs may be deciduous, losing their leaves for significant periods of time when moisture is in short supply; if they are evergreen their leaves are small and tough and total leaf area is relatively low. They also typically have a substantial proportion of their biomass (dry weight of…

  • deciduous tooth (biology)

    human digestive system: The teeth: …as the deciduous, milk, or primary dentition, is acquired gradually between the ages of six months and two years. As the jaws grow and expand, these teeth are replaced one by one by the teeth of the secondary set. There are five deciduous teeth and eight permanent teeth in each…

  • deciduous tree (botany)

    plant development: Seasonal adaptations: …resting buds are formed, and deciduous trees lose their leaves. The resting bud consists of a short axis, with the stem apex surrounded by modified unexpanded leaves, which protect the stem, especially from drying. The cells show marked frost resistance, similar to that of the embryo of the seed. Corresponding…

  • decimal (numeral system)

    Decimal, in mathematics, positional numeral system employing 10 as the base and requiring 10 different numerals, the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. It also requires a dot (decimal point) to represent decimal fractions. In this scheme, the numerals used in denoting a number take different

  • decimal fraction (mathematics)

    Simon Stevin: …elementary and thorough account of decimal fractions and their daily use. Although he did not invent decimal fractions and his notation was rather unwieldy, he established their use in day-to-day mathematics. He declared that the universal introduction of decimal coinage, measures, and weights would be only a question of time.…

  • decimal number system (numeral system)

    Decimal, in mathematics, positional numeral system employing 10 as the base and requiring 10 different numerals, the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. It also requires a dot (decimal point) to represent decimal fractions. In this scheme, the numerals used in denoting a number take different

  • decimal point (mathematics)

    decimal: …also requires a dot (decimal point) to represent decimal fractions. In this scheme, the numerals used in denoting a number take different place values depending upon position. In a base-10 system the number 543.21 represents the sum (5 × 102) + (4 × 101) + (3 × 100) +…

  • decimetre radiation (physics)

    Jupiter: Radio emission: …their characteristic wavelengths—decametre radiation and decimetre radiation.

  • Dě?ín (Czech Republic)

    Dě?ín, city, northwestern Czech Republic, in the gorge of the Elbe (Labe) River and near the German border. Dominated by its 18th-century castle on a 165-foot (50-metre) crag, it is the economic and cultural centre of a scenic tourist region noted for its deep valleys and rock formations. Founded

  • decipherment (communications)

    data encryption: Conversely, decryption, or decipherment, is the process of converting ciphertext back into its original format. Manual encryption has been used since Roman times, but the term has become associated with the disguising of information via electronic computers. Encryption is a process basic to cryptology.

  • decision (sports)

    boxing: Ring, rules, and equipment: …may also end in a decision when the bout has gone the scheduled number of rounds and the scoring officials decide the winner. Several conditions can cause a bout to end in a draw: all three judges awarding identical scores to both contestants results in a draw, as does two…

  • decision analysis (statistics)

    Decision theory, in statistics, a set of quantitative methods for reaching optimal decisions. A solvable decision problem must be capable of being tightly formulated in terms of initial conditions and choices or courses of action, with their consequences. In general, such consequences are not known

  • Decision at Midnight (film by Allen [1963])

    Lewis Allen: …filmed in West Germany, and Decision at Midnight (1963), a political thriller starring Martin Landau.

  • Decision at Sundown (film by Boetticher [1957])

    Budd Boetticher: Westerns: Decision at Sundown (1957) was more pedestrian, possibly because Kennedy was not involved with the script. However, Scott gave a memorable performance as a gunman seeking revenge against the man (John Carroll) who stole his wife. Buchanan Rides Alone (1958) had a semi-comical undertone, with…

  • Decision Before Dawn (film by Litvak [1951])

    Anatole Litvak: The Hollywood years: …was followed by the thriller Decision Before Dawn (1951), with Oskar Werner as a German prisoner of war who agrees to spy on the Nazis for the United States during World War II. Litvak, having returned to living in France in 1949, used authentic German locations to lend verisimilitude to…

  • decision lag (government)

    government economic policy: The problem of time lags: The decision lag is the period between the time when the need for action is recognized and the time when action is taken. Although the recognition lag is presumably of about the same duration for both monetary and fiscal policies, the decision lag is usually considerably…

  • decision making

    Decision making, process and logic through which individuals arrive at a decision. Different models of decision making lead to dramatically different analyses and predictions. Decision-making theories range from objective rational decision making, which assumes that individuals will make the same

  • Decision Points (memoir by Bush)

    George W. Bush: Postpresidential activities: …2010 Bush published the memoir Decision Points, in which he defended the Iraq War, stated that he personally approved the waterboarding of a captured member of al-Qaeda, reasserted his belief that waterboarding does not constitute torture, and acknowledged the federal government’s slow response to Hurricane Katrina. In 2014 he issued…

  • decision problem (logic)

    Decision problem, for a class of questions in mathematics and formal logic, the problem of finding, after choosing any question of the class, an algorithm or repetitive procedure that will yield a definite answer, “yes” or “no,” to that question. The method consists of performing successively a

  • decision procedure (logic)

    Decision problem, for a class of questions in mathematics and formal logic, the problem of finding, after choosing any question of the class, an algorithm or repetitive procedure that will yield a definite answer, “yes” or “no,” to that question. The method consists of performing successively a

  • decision strategy (statistics)

    statistics: Decision analysis: A decision strategy is a contingency plan that recommends the best decision alternative depending on what has happened earlier in the sequential process.

  • decision theory (ethology)

    instinct: Tinbergen: hierarchy of motivation: …introduced at this time was decision theory, according to which an animal selects among alternative courses of action in accordance with assessments of present and past costs and benefits in a given situation.

  • decision theory (statistics)

    Decision theory, in statistics, a set of quantitative methods for reaching optimal decisions. A solvable decision problem must be capable of being tightly formulated in terms of initial conditions and choices or courses of action, with their consequences. In general, such consequences are not known

  • decision tree (statistics)

    statistics: Decision analysis: A decision tree is a graphical device that is helpful in structuring and analyzing such problems. With the aid of decision trees, an optimal decision strategy can be developed. A decision strategy is a contingency plan that recommends the best decision alternative depending on what has…

  • Decision, The (work by Musgrave)

    Thea Musgrave: …culminating in the three-act opera The Decision (first performed 1967), a drama on the ordeal of a trapped miner told in abstract instrumental terms. She continued to write operas, often on historical or classical themes, among them The Voice of Ariadne (1974), Harriet, the Woman Called Moses (1984), Simón Bolívar…

  • decision-making capacity (health law)

    Competence, a person’s ability to make and communicate a decision to consent to medical treatment. Competence is thus central to the determination of consent and reflects the law’s concern with individual autonomy. A person’s decision regarding medical treatment must be respected when that person

  • decision-support system (industrial engineering)

    information system: Decision support systems and business intelligence: …decision making, however indirectly, but decision support systems are expressly designed for this purpose. As these systems are increasingly being developed to analyze massive collections of data (known as big data), they are becoming known as business intelligence, or business analytics, applications. The two principal varieties of decision support systems…

  • Decisive Moment, The (book by Cartier-Bresson)

    Henri Cartier-Bresson: …and perhaps the best known, Images à la sauvette, contains what is probably Cartier-Bresson’s most comprehensive and important statement on the meaning, technique, and utility of photography. The title refers to a central idea in his work—the decisive moment—the elusive instant when, with brilliant clarity, the appearance of the subject…

  • Decius (Roman emperor)

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