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  • du Pont, John (American philanthropist)

    John du Pont, American philanthropist who supported amateur freestyle wrestling and who on January 26, 1996, shot and killed freestyle wrestler Dave Schultz, an Olympic gold medalist who lived and trained at du Pont’s estate. Du Pont was convicted though found to be mentally ill, and he died while

  • du Pont, John Eleuthère (American philanthropist)

    John du Pont, American philanthropist who supported amateur freestyle wrestling and who on January 26, 1996, shot and killed freestyle wrestler Dave Schultz, an Olympic gold medalist who lived and trained at du Pont’s estate. Du Pont was convicted though found to be mentally ill, and he died while

  • du Pont, Lammot (American industrialist)

    explosive: History of black powder: Lammot du Pont, an American industrialist, solved this problem and started making sodium nitrate powder in 1858. It became popular in a short time because, although it did not produce as high a quality explosive as potassium nitrate, it was suitable for most mining and…

  • du Pont, Margaret (American tennis player)

    Margaret Osborne duPont, (Margaret Evelyn Osborne), American tennis champion (born March 4, 1918, Joseph, Ore.—died Oct. 24, 2012, El Paso, Texas), displayed aggressive play, grace under pressure, and stamina as she captured 37 Grand Slam titles—31 doubles (10 of them in mixed doubles) and 6

  • du Pont, Pierre Samuel (American industrialist)

    Pierre Samuel du Pont, manufacturer and the largest American munitions producer during World War I. Pierre Samuel du Pont was the great-great-grandson and namesake of the French economist, whose son, éleuthère Iréné du Pont, began the family’s fortunes in America in 1802. Graduating from the

  • du Pont, Pierre-Samuel (French economist)

    Pierre-Samuel du Pont, French economist whose numerous writings were mainly devoted to spreading the tenets of the physiocratic school and whose adherence to those doctrines largely explains his conduct during his long political career. An early work on free trade, De l’ Exportation et de

  • du Pont, Samuel Francis (United States naval officer)

    du Pont Family: His son, Samuel Francis du Pont (1803–65), was a U.S. naval officer. He served in the Mexican War, was on the board that designed the curriculum for the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., and commanded squadrons and fleets in the blockade of the South during the American…

  • du Pont, Victor-Marie (French diplomat)

    du Pont Family: The first son, Victor-Marie du Pont (1767–1827), was attaché to the first French legation to the United States (1787), aide-de-camp to Lafayette (1789–91), second secretary of the French legation (1791–92), and first secretary (1795–96). In 1800 he returned to settle in the United States and became naturalized. When…

  • Du Port, Adrien-Jean-Fran?ois (French magistrate)

    Adrien Duport, French magistrate who was a leading constitutional monarchist during the early stages of the French Revolution of 1789. A prominent member of the Parlement of Paris (one of the high courts of justice), Duport was elected for the nobility to the Estates-General of 1789. On June 25 he

  • du Pré, Jacqueline (British cellist)

    Jacqueline du Pré, British cellist whose romantic, emotive style propelled her to international stardom by age 20. Although du Pré’s playing career was cut short by illness, she is regarded as one of the 20th century’s greatest cellists. Du Pré began studying cello at age five. Along with her

  • Du Sable, Jean-Baptist-Point (American pioneer)

    Jean-Baptist-Point Du Sable, black pioneer trader and founder of the settlement that later became the city of Chicago. Du Sable, whose French father had moved to Haiti and married a black woman there, is believed to have been a freeborn. At some time in the 1770s he went to the Great Lakes area of

  • Du sentiment considéré dans ses rapports avec la littérature et les arts (work by Ballanche)

    Pierre-Simon Ballanche: In Du sentiment considéré dans ses rapports avec la littérature et les arts (1801; “Sentiment Considered in Its Relationship to Literature and the Arts”), he expressed views on the role of religious emotion in art that foreshadow Fran?ois-Auguste-René Chateaubriand’s influential landmark of Romanticism, Le Génie du…

  • Du Shaoling (Chinese poet)

    Du Fu, Chinese poet, considered by many literary critics to be the greatest of all time. Born into a scholarly family, Du Fu received a traditional Confucian education but failed in the imperial examinations of 735. As a result, he spent much of his youth traveling. During his travels he won renown

  • Du Toit, Alexander (South African geologist)

    continental drift: In 1937 Alexander L. Du Toit, a South African geologist, modified Wegener’s hypothesis by suggesting two primordial continents: Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south.

  • Du Toit, Jakob Daniel (South African poet and scholar)

    Jakob Daniel Du Toit, Afrikaaner poet, pastor, biblical scholar, and the compiler of an Afrikaans Psalter (1936) that is regarded as one of the finest poetic achievements of its kind in Dutch, Flemish, or Afrikaans. Du Toit was educated in Pretoria, Rustenburg, and Daljosafat, studied at the

  • Du Toit, Natalie (South African swimmer)
  • du Toit, Stephanus Jacobus (South African politician)

    Stephanus Jacobus du Toit, South African pastor and political leader who, as the founder of the Afrikaner Bond (“Afrikaner League”) political party, was an early leader of Boer/Afrikaner cultural nationalism and helped foment the political antagonism between the British and the Boers in Southern

  • Du Vall, Claude (French highwayman)

    Claude Duval, celebrated Norman-born highwayman of Restoration England, popularized as a gallant cavalier. Duval entered domestic service in Paris when he was 14 and made friends with the English exiles in Paris who were waiting for the Restoration; when Charles II returned to England in 1660,

  • du Vigneaud, Vincent (American biochemist)

    Vincent du Vigneaud, American biochemist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1955 for the isolation and synthesis of two pituitary hormones: vasopressin, which acts on the muscles of the blood vessels to cause elevation of blood pressure; and oxytocin, the principal agent causing

  • Du Wenxiu (Chinese Muslim leader)

    Yunnan: History: In 1855–73, Muslims, led by Du Wenxiu (alias Sultan Sulaymān), who obtained arms from the British authorities in Burma (Myanmar), staged the Panthay Rebellion, which was crushed with great cruelty by the Chinese imperial troops, aided by arms from the French authorities in Tonkin (northern Vietnam). In 1915 Cai E,…

  • Du Yu (Chinese author)

    encyclopaedia: China: …Tongdian (“Comprehensive Statutes”) compiled by Du Yu (735–812), a writer on government and economics. Completed about 801, it contained nine sections: economics, examinations and degrees, government, rites and ceremonies, music, the army, law, political geography, national defense. In 1273 it was supplemented by Ma Duanlin’s enormous and highly regarded Wenxian…

  • Du Zimei (Chinese poet)

    Du Fu, Chinese poet, considered by many literary critics to be the greatest of all time. Born into a scholarly family, Du Fu received a traditional Confucian education but failed in the imperial examinations of 735. As a result, he spent much of his youth traveling. During his travels he won renown

  • Dual Alliance (Europe [1894])

    Dual Alliance, a political and military pact that developed between France and Russia from friendly contacts in 1891 to a secret treaty in 1894; it became one of the basic European alignments of the pre-World War I era. Germany, assuming that ideological differences and lack of common interest

  • Dual Alliance (Europe [1879])

    Austro-German Alliance, (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation

  • Dual Control (British-French controller)

    Egypt: Ismā?īl, 1863–79: …and a French controller (the Dual Control). After an international enquiry in 1878, Ismā?īl accepted the principle of ministerial responsibility for government and authorized the formation of an international ministry under Nūbār that included the British and French controllers in his cabinet. Ismā?īl, however, was not willing to give up…

  • dual drug therapy (therapeutics)

    gonorrhea: Diagnosis and treatment: …to treating gonorrhea centres on dual drug therapy. Which drugs are used in dual therapy is determined in part by which drug-resistant strains are prevalent in the geographical region where infection was acquired and in some cases by whether there exists a likelihood of coinfection (such as with Chlamydia trachomatis,…

  • dual economy

    economic development: Development of domestic industry: …country, it aggravates the financial dualism characterized by low rates of interest in the modern sector and high rates in the traditional sector. The policy of keeping the official rate of interest below the equilibrium rate of interest also results in an excess demand for loans, leading to domestic inflation…

  • dual kingship

    Qarluq confederation: …of social organization known as dual kingship. The western, paramount branch of the Qarluq confederation was centred at Balāsāghūn (now in Kyrgyzstan). The eastern branch was centred at Kashgar (now in the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China). Each branch had its own tribal chief and a distinct hierarchy of…

  • Dual Monarchy (historical empire, Europe)

    Austria-Hungary, the Habsburg empire from the constitutional Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 between Austria and Hungary until the empire’s collapse in 1918. A brief treatment of the history of Austria-Hungary follows. For full treatment, see Austria: Austria-Hungary, 1867–1918. The empire of

  • dual number (grammar)

    Slavic languages: Cases: There was also a dual number, meaning two persons or things. In the dual, the cases that were semantically close to each other were represented by a single form (nominative-accusative-vocative, instrumental-dative, genitive-locative). The dual is preserved today only in the westernmost area (i.e., in Slovene and Sorbian). The trend…

  • dual organization (sociology)

    Moiety system, form of social organization characterized by the division of society into two complementary parts called “moieties.” Most often, moieties are groups that are exogamous, or outmarrying, that are of unilineal descent (tracing ancestry through either the male or female line, but not

  • dual plan education (education)

    pedagogy: The organization of instruction: …or based on the so-called dual plan (containing only students pursuing a particular curriculum). In some countries, the dual system is actually tripartite: there may be schools for classical academic study, schools for technical or vocational study, and schools for more generalized, “modern,” diversified study. Whether comprehensive or dual-plan, schools…

  • dual principle (political theory)

    Kublai Khan: Legacy: …theory known as the “dual principle”—that is, the parity of power and dignity of religion and state in political affairs. That theory was turned to practical account on more than one occasion in the subsequent history of Mongolia and, for example, underlay the constitution of the theocratic monarchy proclaimed…

  • dual-aspect theory (philosophy)

    Double-aspect theory, type of mind-body monism. According to double-aspect theory, the mental and the material are different aspects or attributes of a unitary reality, which itself is neither mental nor material. The view is derived from the metaphysics of Benedict de Spinoza, who held that mind

  • dual-bed catalytic converter (pollution control)

    automotive ceramics: Catalytic converter substrates: ) In dual-bed converter systems the exhaust gases are first reduced in order to eliminate the oxides of nitrogen; then they are oxidized with added air in order to eliminate carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. In more advanced three-way converters individual catalysts accomplish reduction of each species…

  • dual-duct system (air-conditioning)

    construction: Heating and cooling systems: In the 1960s the so-called dual-duct system appeared; both warm and cold air were centrally supplied to every part of the building and combined in mixing boxes to provide the appropriate atmosphere. The dual-duct system also consumed much energy, and, when energy prices began to rise in the 1970s, both…

  • dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (medicine)

    bone mineral density: …mineral density test is the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, which employs minimal amounts of radiation and is commonly used for osteoporosis (bone-thinning) screening. Other types of clinical tests that are used to determine bone mineral density include those based on the use of single-photon absorptiometry, dual-photon absorptiometry, ultrasound, and…

  • dual-media filter (chemistry)

    water supply system: Filtration: …water-treatment plants now use rapid dual-media filters following coagulation and sedimentation. A dual-media filter consists of a layer of anthracite coal above a layer of fine sand. The upper layer of coal traps most of the large floc, and the finer sand grains in the lower layer trap smaller impurities.…

  • dual-tone multifrequency (telephone)

    telephone: Push-button dialing: …on a concept known as dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF). The 10 dialing digits (0 through 9) are assigned to specific push buttons, and the buttons are arranged in a grid with four rows and three columns. The pad also has two more buttons, bearing the star (*) and pound (#) symbols,…

  • Dual-tone multiple frequency (telephone)

    telephone: Push-button dialing: …on a concept known as dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF). The 10 dialing digits (0 through 9) are assigned to specific push buttons, and the buttons are arranged in a grid with four rows and three columns. The pad also has two more buttons, bearing the star (*) and pound (#) symbols,…

  • Duala (people)

    Duala, Bantu-speaking people of the forest region of southern Cameroon living on the estuary of the Wouri River. By 1800 the Duala controlled Cameroon’s trade with Europeans, and their concentrated settlement pattern developed under this influence. Their system of chieftaincy was partly founded on

  • dualism (philosophy)

    Dualism, in philosophy, the use of two irreducible, heterogeneous principles (sometimes in conflict, sometimes complementary) to analyze the knowing process (epistemological dualism) or to explain all of reality or some broad aspect of it (metaphysical dualism). Examples of epistemological dualism

  • dualism (religion)

    Dualism, in religion, the doctrine that the world (or reality) consists of two basic, opposed, and irreducible principles that account for all that exists. It has played an important role in the history of thought and of religion. In religion, dualism means the belief in two supreme opposed powers

  • duality (mathematics)

    Duality, in mathematics, principle whereby one true statement can be obtained from another by merely interchanging two words. It is a property belonging to the branch of algebra known as lattice theory, which is involved with the concepts of order and structure common to different mathematical

  • duan (literature)

    Duan, a poem or song in Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic literature. The word was used by James Macpherson for major divisions of his Ossianic verse and hence was taken to be the Scottish Gaelic equivalent of

  • Duan (China)

    Zhaoqing, city, western Guangdong sheng (province), China. It lies on the north bank of the Xi River, 50 miles (80 km) west of the provincial capital of Guangzhou (Canton), just above the famous Lingyang Gorge, commanding the river route to Guangzhou. Zhaoqing is an ancient city. A county town was

  • Duan Qirui (Chinese warlord)

    Duan Qirui, warlord who dominated China intermittently between 1916 and 1926. A student of military science in Germany, Duan became President Yuan Shikai’s minister of war following the Chinese Revolution of 1911. Shortly before Yuan’s death in 1916, Duan became premier, and he kept the post in the

  • Duanag Ullamh, An (Scottish poem)

    Celtic literature: Continuation of the oral tradition: Examples are An Duanag Ullamh (“The Finished Poem”), composed in honour of Archibald Campbell, 4th earl of Argyll, and the lovely lament Griogal Cridhe (“Teasing Heart”; c. 1570). It is certain that the poetry recorded in The Book of the Dean of Lismore was not an isolated…

  • Duane–Hunt law

    Duane–Hunt law, in atomic physics, the relationship between the voltage (V ) applied to an X-ray tube and the maximum frequency ν of the X rays emitted from the target. It is named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt. The relationship is expressed as ν = Ve/h, in which e

  • Duang (king of Cambodia)

    Duong, king of Cambodia by 1841, formally invested in 1848, the last Cambodian king to reign before the French-imposed protectorate. Duong was the younger brother of King Chan II, who had ruled uncertainly in joint vassalage to Siam (Thailand) and Vietnam. Between 1841 and 1847 these two neighbours

  • Duang Champa (Lao writer)

    Lao literature: Modern Lao literature: Dara Viravong (pseudonyms Pa Nai, Dauk Ket, and Duang Champa, respectively). An equally important writer was Outhine Bounyavong, Maha Sila Viravong’s son-in-law, who remained a notable writer through the turn of the 21st century; his short stories were translated into English and collected as Mother’s…

  • Duangdeuan Viravong (Lao writer)

    Lao literature: Modern Lao literature: …history, and culture: Pakian Viravong, Duangdeuan Viravong, and Dara Viravong (pseudonyms Pa Nai, Dauk Ket, and Duang Champa, respectively). An equally important writer was Outhine Bounyavong, Maha Sila Viravong’s son-in-law, who remained a notable writer through the turn of the 21st century; his short stories were translated into English and…

  • Duanmu Hongliang (Chinese writer)

    Chinese literature: 1927–37: …the powerful short stories of Duanmu Hongliang became rallying cries for anti-Japanese youth as signs of impending war mounted.

  • Duany, Andrés (American architect)

    Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk: Duany, though born in New York City, was raised in Cuba and Spain, the son of refugees who fled the Cuban revolution in 1960. Plater-Zyberk was the daughter of émigrés who escaped communist Poland in the late 1940s. They both earned undergraduate degrees in architecture…

  • Duany, Andrés, and Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth (American architects)

    Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, American architects whose early success was rare in a profession in which critical acclaim often was not achieved until late in a career. Their rise to prominence began with their revolutionary scheme for Seaside (begun 1980, completed 1983), a resort on

  • Duars (region, India)

    Duars, region of northeastern India, at the foot of the east-central Himalayas. It is divided by the Sankosh River into the Western and Eastern Duars. Both were ceded by Bhutan to the British at the end of the Bhutan War (1864–65). The Eastern Duars, in western Assam state, comprises a level plain

  • Duārs Plain (plain, Bhutan)

    Bhutan: The Duars Plain: South of the Lesser Himalayas and the foothills lies the narrow Duars Plain, which forms a strip 8 to 10 miles (12 to 16 km) wide along the southern border of Bhutan. The Himalayan ranges rise sharply and abruptly from this plain, which…

  • Duarte (king of Portugal)

    Edward, king of Portugal whose brief reign (1433–38) witnessed a strengthening of the monarchy through reform of royal land-grant laws, a continuation of voyages of discovery, and a military disaster in Tangier. A scholarly, sensitive man of high moral character, Edward was known as the

  • Duarte Cancino, Isaias (Colombian archbishop)

    Isaias Duarte Cancino, Colombian cleric (born Feb. 15, 1939, San Gil, Colom.—died March 16, 2002, Cali, Colom.), was archbishop of Cali from 1995 and an outspoken critic of Colombian guerrillas and drug traffickers. Duarte was slain by two gunmen outside a church where he had just presided over a w

  • Duarte Frutos, Nicanor (president of Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Paraguay in the 21st century: …27, 2003, Colorado Party candidate Nicanor Duarte Frutos won the presidential election, promising to fight corruption in his party and in his country. During his presidential term Duarte removed six judges from the Supreme Court who were suspected of corruption, introduced tax reforms, and pursued efficient macroeconomic policies. In June…

  • Duarte Peak (mountain, Dominican Republic)

    Cordillera Central: Duarte Peak, originally known as Mount Loma Tina and then as Trujillo Peak, rises to 10,417 feet (3,175 m); it is thus the highest peak in the West Indies. The rugged, heavily forested slopes of the cordillera have defied all but a few attempts to…

  • Duarte, Fausto (Cabo Verdean author and government official)

    Fausto Duarte, government official and writer whose early work in Portuguese established him as one of the earliest African novelists. Duarte was educated under the official program of assimila?ao (“assimilation”), which after 1921 had social and political equality for Africans in the Portuguese

  • Duarte, Fausto Castilho (Cabo Verdean author and government official)

    Fausto Duarte, government official and writer whose early work in Portuguese established him as one of the earliest African novelists. Duarte was educated under the official program of assimila?ao (“assimilation”), which after 1921 had social and political equality for Africans in the Portuguese

  • Duarte, José Napoleon (president of El Salvador)

    José Napoleon Duarte, president of El Salvador (1984–89), who unsuccessfully tried to reduce poverty and halt the prolonged civil war in his country. Duarte studied civil engineering at Notre Dame University in the United States (B.S., 1948). In 1960 he was a founder of the centrist Christian

  • Duarte, Juan Pablo (Dominican [republic] political leader)

    Juan Pablo Duarte, father of Dominican independence, who lost power after the struggle succeeded and spent the end of his life in exile. Duarte, who was sent to Europe for his education (1828–33), became determined to free the eastern part of Hispaniola from Haitian domination. On his return to the

  • Duarte, María Eva (Argentine political figure and actress)

    Eva Perón, second wife of Argentine president Juan Perón, who, during her husband’s first term as president (1946–52), became a powerful though unofficial political leader, revered by the lower economic classes. Duarte was born in the small town of Los Toldos on the Argentine Pampas. Her parents,

  • Duarte, Pico (mountain, Dominican Republic)

    Cordillera Central: Duarte Peak, originally known as Mount Loma Tina and then as Trujillo Peak, rises to 10,417 feet (3,175 m); it is thus the highest peak in the West Indies. The rugged, heavily forested slopes of the cordillera have defied all but a few attempts to…

  • dub (music)

    Dancehall music, style of Jamaican popular music that had its genesis in the political turbulence of the late 1970s and became Jamaica’s dominant music in the 1980s and ’90s. Central to dancehall is the deejay, who raps, or “toasts,” over a prerecorded rhythm track (bass guitar and drums), or

  • Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    Dubai, city and capital of the emirate of Dubai, one of the wealthiest of the seven emirates that constitute the federation of the United Arab Emirates, which was created in 1971 following independence from Great Britain. There are several theories about the origin of the name Dubai. One associates

  • Dubai (emirate, United Arab Emirates)

    Dubai, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States or Trucial Oman). The second most populous and second largest state of the federation (area 1,510 square miles [3,900 square km]), it is roughly rectangular, with a frontage of about 45 miles (72 km) on the Persian

  • Dubai Financial Market (stock exchange, United Arab Emirates)

    United Arab Emirates: Finance: …first official stock exchange, the Dubai Financial Market (Sūq Dubayy al-Mālī; DFM), was opened in 2000, followed by the Dubai International Financial Exchange in 2005.

  • Dubai International Financial Exchange (stock exchange, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    United Arab Emirates: Finance: …in 2000, followed by the Dubai International Financial Exchange in 2005.

  • Dubai Ports World (Emirati company)

    United Arab Emirates: Foreign relations: …over the move by state-owned Dubai Ports World (DP World) to take over management of a number of U.S. ports through its acquisition of the British firm that had previously run the ports. Citing security fears, the U.S. Congress threatened to block the deal, which was supported by Pres. George…

  • Dubai World Cup (horse racing)

    Dubai: Cultural life: The Dubai World Cup is the world’s most lucrative horse race, and the city’s Dubai Desert Classic is a popular fixture on the European Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) Tour.

  • Dubays I (Iraqi ruler)

    Mazyadid Dynasty: …eager to assume power, although Dubays I (reigned 1018–81) officially succeeded his father. Dubays’ brother al-Muqallad soon attempted to oust him but, failing, turned to the ?Uqaylid capital of Mosul for help. In 1030, supported by ?Uqaylid and Būyid forces, al-Muqallad routed Dubays. Dubays, however, was allowed to return to…

  • Dubays II (Iraqi ruler)

    Mazyadid Dynasty: Dubays II (reigned 1108–35) succeeded to the throne on his father’s death and distinguished himself as a great warrior against the crusaders and as a generous patron of Arabic poetry. After Dubays’ death, Mazyadid strength was reduced by his three brothers’ efforts to displace one…

  • Dubayy (emirate, United Arab Emirates)

    Dubai, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States or Trucial Oman). The second most populous and second largest state of the federation (area 1,510 square miles [3,900 square km]), it is roughly rectangular, with a frontage of about 45 miles (72 km) on the Persian

  • Dubbelheten: tre sagor (work by Trotzig)

    Birgitta Trotzig: In 1998 Trotzig published Dubbelheten: tre sagor (“Doubleness: Three Tales”), which deals, as one critic put it, with the problems of “want, meaninglessness, and death.” The same critic speaks of the stories’ “lyrical style, their simple and stark beauty.”

  • dubbing (cinema)

    Dubbing, in filmmaking, the process of adding new dialogue or other sounds to the sound track of a motion picture that has already been shot. Dubbing is most familiar to audiences as a means of translating foreign-language films into the audience’s language. When a foreign language is dubbed, the t

  • Dubbo (New South Wales, Australia)

    Dubbo, city, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the Macquarie River. The district around what is now Dubbo was visited in 1818 by the explorer John Oxley, and it received its first settlers in 1824. Dubbo, founded in 1841, was an established village by 1849. It became a

  • Dub?ek, Alexander (Czechoslovak statesman)

    Alexander Dub?ek, first secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Jan. 5, 1968, to April 17, 1969) whose liberal reforms led to the Soviet invasion and occupation of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Dub?ek received his early education in Kirgiziya (Kyrgyzstan) in Soviet Central Asia, where

  • Dube, John Langalibalele (South African author and educator)

    John Langalibalele Dube, South African minister, educator, journalist, and author of Insila ka Shaka (1930; Jeqe, the Bodyservant of King Shaka), the first novel published by a Zulu in his native language. After studying at Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, U.S., and being ordained a minister, Dube

  • Dube, Lucky (South African singer-songwriter)

    Lucky Philip Dube, South African reggae singer-songwriter (born Aug. 3, 1964, Ermelo, S.Af.—died Oct. 18, 2007, Rosettenville, near Johannesburg, S.Af.), sang in Zulu, Afrikaans, and English about peace, unity, and respect while criticizing both apartheid and the postapartheid South African

  • Dube, Lucky Philip (South African singer-songwriter)

    Lucky Philip Dube, South African reggae singer-songwriter (born Aug. 3, 1964, Ermelo, S.Af.—died Oct. 18, 2007, Rosettenville, near Johannesburg, S.Af.), sang in Zulu, Afrikaans, and English about peace, unity, and respect while criticizing both apartheid and the postapartheid South African

  • Dubé, Marcel (Canadian writer)

    Canadian literature: World War II and the postwar period, 1935–60: Two playwrights, Gratien Gélinas and Marcel Dubé, began writing in colloquial language about the problems of living in a society controlled by the Roman Catholic Church and by a paternalistic Union Nationale government. Permanent theatres and professional companies sprang up, their personnel often supported by part-time work with Radio-Canada or…

  • Dubh Linn (national capital, Ireland)

    Dublin, city, capital of Ireland, located on the east coast in the province of Leinster. Situated at the head of Dublin Bay of the Irish Sea, Dublin is the country’s chief port, centre of financial and commercial power, and seat of culture. It is also a city of contrasts, maintaining an uneasy

  • Dubhe (star)

    Ursa Major: Two of the constellation’s stars, Dubhe and Merak, are called the pointers because the line Merak-Dubhe points to the Pole Star.

  • Dubin, Al (American lyricist)

    Harry Warren: …a major collaboration with lyricist Al Dubin that lasted through 1939. Together, they created music for such films as Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933; including “We’re in the Money”) and 42nd Street (1933; including the title song, as well as “You’re Getting to Be a Habit with Me” and “Shuffle…

  • Dubinsky, David (American labour leader)

    David Dubinsky, American labour leader who served as president of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) from 1932 to 1966. The son of a baker in Russian Poland, Dubinsky was sent to Siberia in 1908 for his union activities. He escaped and emigrated to the United States in 1911.

  • Dublin (county, Ireland)

    Dublin, geographic county in the province of Leinster, eastern Ireland. In 1994 it was replaced administratively by three counties—Fingal to the north, South Dublin to the southwest, and Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown to the southeast—as well as by the city of Dublin itself, which was given the

  • Dublin (national capital, Ireland)

    Dublin, city, capital of Ireland, located on the east coast in the province of Leinster. Situated at the head of Dublin Bay of the Irish Sea, Dublin is the country’s chief port, centre of financial and commercial power, and seat of culture. It is also a city of contrasts, maintaining an uneasy

  • Dublin Area Rapid Transit (transit system, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: Transportation: The Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) train service runs along the coast from Malahide and Howth in County Fingal to Greystones, County Wicklow, in the south. A tram system from St. Stephen’s Green in the centre of the city began operating in 2004. Connolly and Heuston…

  • Dublin Bay prawn (lobster)

    Scampi, (Nephrops norvegicus), edible lobster of the order Decapoda (class Crustacea). It is widespread in the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic, from North Africa to Norway and Iceland, and as a gastronomic delicacy it is commercially exploited over much of its range, particularly by Great

  • Dublin Castle (castle, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: City layout: …Norman, and Georgian—all meet in Dublin Castle. In the first two decades of the 13th century, the Normans obliterated the Norse stronghold and raised a chateau-fort. When the Georgians built the present red-brick castle, they left two towers of the old structure standing. The castle—the seat of British authority in…

  • Dublin City Council (Irish government)

    Dublin: National and local government: …by the three counties and Dublin City Council (formerly Dublin Corporation). The council is the largest local authority in Ireland, consisting of more than 50 councillors elected every five years by proportional representation. The council is led by a lord mayor chosen annually by the councillors from among themselves. The…

  • Dublin City University (university, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: Education: …1989 the capital’s newest university, Dublin City University, was created from the National Institute for Higher Education. Also in the city are a number of other institutions of higher education, including colleges of technology, teacher-training colleges, and specialized vocational colleges.

  • Dublin Corporation (Irish government)

    Dublin: National and local government: …by the three counties and Dublin City Council (formerly Dublin Corporation). The council is the largest local authority in Ireland, consisting of more than 50 councillors elected every five years by proportional representation. The council is led by a lord mayor chosen annually by the councillors from among themselves. The…

  • Dublin Port Tunnel (tunnel, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: Transportation: The Dublin Port Tunnel, Ireland’s largest civil engineering project, opened in 2006 and links the port to the national motorway network. The Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) train service runs along the coast from Malahide and Howth in County Fingal to Greystones, County Wicklow, in the…

  • Dublin University Magazine (Irish literary publication)

    Charles James Lever: …assumed the editorship of the Dublin University Magazine. He traveled to the European continent in 1845, visited resorts, and served as British consul at La Spezia and Trieste. He continued to write novels, among them The Knight of Gwynne (1847), Confessions of Con Cregan (1849), and Roland Cashel (1850). These…

  • Dublin, Edward Augustus, Earl of, Duke of Kent and Strathern (British military officer)

    Edward Augustus, duke of Kent and Strathern, fourth son of King George III of Great Britain, father of Queen Victoria. He made his career in the army and saw service at Gibraltar, Canada, and the West Indies, where he was renowned as a severe disciplinarian. Like most of his brothers, he was not on

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