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Alternative Title: 4n series
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dating: Uranium-series disequilibrium dating…provided by the uranium- and thorium-decay chains. Uranium–thorium series radioisotopes, like the cosmogenic isotopes, have short half-lives and are thus suitable for dating geologically young materials. The decay of uranium to lead is not achieved by a single step but rather involves a whole series of different elements, each with…
actinoid element: Nuclear properties of the actinoids…all isotopes of the so-called thorium series, for instance, turn out to be multiples of four, and the series is known as the 4n series. In the uranium series, masses have been shown to be such that they are represented by 4n + 2; in the actinium series, by 4n…
radioactive seriesThree of the sets, the thorium series, uranium series, and actinium series, called natural or classical series, are headed by naturally occurring species of unstable nuclei that have half-lives comparable to the age of the elements. By 1935 these three radioactive series had been fully delineated. The fourth set, the…