How Environmental Economics Places Value on the Environment

Economists have long tried to accurately determine the value of environmental goods to society. That effort has led to several valuation techniques.

Valuing the environment

Contingent valuation

Contingent valuation, or stated preferences, is a seemingly simple method that involves asking people directly about their values for a particular environmental good. This method is particularly useful in determining the value of environmental goods that individuals have yet to experience or may never actually experience themselves.

Contingent valuation was useful in the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This method was used to determine, among other things, the value placed on simply knowing that a pristine Alaskan wilderness exists (the existence value), even though many respondents might never actually experience that wilderness. More generally, the contingent-valuation method is often used in policy development to determine how much respondents would be willing to pay for a higher-quality environment.

Sources of bias

However, despite its simple concept, the contingent-valuation method carries with it a host of complex problems that must be taken into account for the results of a survey to be considered credible. The problems usually stem from one or more of the following: information bias (where the respondent has no information), hypothetical bias (where the respondent will neither pay nor give a reasonable answer), starting-point bias (where the respondent is influenced by the initial numbers given as examples or as part of a range in survey), and strategic bias (where the respondent wants a specific outcome). Because any bias can hinder the usefulness of a contingent valuation survey, special care must be taken to ensure that bias is minimized.

With information bias, hypothetical bias, and starting-point bias, respondents unintentionally misrepresent the value that they hold for an environmental good. With information bias, respondents lack enough information to form an accurate response. To avoid that type of bias, surveyors will usually provide a great deal of information to respondents about the survey topic.

Hypothetical bias occurs because individuals tend to respond differently to hypothetical scenarios than they do to the same scenarios in the real world. One solution to that problem is to conduct the contingent-valuation surveys in a laboratory setting. The surveyor can then remind respondents to consider the financial ramifications that their responses would produce in a real-world setting. The surveyor can also use experimental techniques that mimic real-world conditions.

Starting-point bias results when respondents are influenced by the set of available responses to the survey. Solving that problem requires significant pretesting of a survey’s design.

Unlike the other types of response bias mentioned above, strategic bias occurs when respondents intentionally try to manipulate the outcome of a survey. It is not always possible to eliminate intentionally biased responses. However, it is generally best to randomly survey a large number of individuals, because that will decrease the likelihood that strategic bias will undermine the results.

Contingent-valuation applications

Contingent-valuation methods have been used to determine the amount respondents would be willing to pay for many environmental goods. For example, respondents have been asked the value they would place on increased air visibility in the White Mountains and the Grand Canyon in the United States. Contingent-valuation methods also have been used to determine the value of old-growth forest preservation in the face of industrial expansion.

Revealed-preferences method

The revealed-preferences method involves determining the value that consumers hold for an environmental good by observing their purchase of goods in the market that directly (or indirectly) relate to environmental quality. For example, the purchase of air fresheners, noise-reducing materials, and water-purification systems reveal the minimum amount individuals would be willing to pay for improved air and water quality. That revealed-preferences method is called the household production approach. Economists can also use revealed preferences to determine the value of clean air and clean water through differences in home prices between pristine and polluted areas. That revealed-preferences method is called the hedonic approach.


There are some environmental goods for which it can be nearly impossible to identify values through market interactions. For example, using the revealed-preferences method to determine the value that society holds for the survival of an endangered species poses a tremendous challenge.

The household production and hedonic approaches have the advantage of relying on actual consumer choices to infer the value society holds for a particular environmental good, rather than relying on hypothetical scenarios. Valuation techniques are useful not only in cost-benefit analyses or in cases of extreme environmental damage but also in the subtler cases of environmental degradation that occur as a result of market failure. However, there are some environmental goods for which it can be nearly impossible to identify values through market interactions. For example, using the revealed-preferences method to determine the value that society holds for the survival of an endangered species poses a tremendous challenge. In such cases, revealed preferences may not be the preferred method of valuation.

Revealed-preferences methods have been commonly used by researchers since the late 20th century to determine the value society holds for clean air and clean water. For example, housing prices declined in the town of New Bedford, Massachusetts, in the early 1980s following severe contamination of the nearby harbour. Using the hedonic approach, economists found that homes closest to the contamination experienced a $9,000 reduction in value, with the overall loss to New Bedford homeowners estimated at about $36 million.

This type of analysis provides only a minimum value of the loss experienced as a result of the pollution of the harbour. In this case the reduction in housing values is only one measure of loss. It could be combined with others, such as the cost of increased medical care over a resident’s lifetime, which may or may not be directly attributed to the pollution of the harbour; however, such measures are more difficult to obtain. Revealed-preferences methods can be valuable in determining an appropriate fine for the firms responsible for the pollution. More generally, the results also highlight the value that individuals place on clean water.

Market failure

Market failure arises when the outcome of an economic transaction is not completely efficient, meaning that all costs and benefits related to the transaction are not limited to the buyer and the seller in the transaction. Individual consumers will often purchase goods with an environmental component to make up for their inability to directly purchase environmental goods, thus revealing the value they hold for certain aspects of environmental quality. For example, someone may buy a cabin on a lake in order to enjoy not only the home itself but also the lake’s pristine environment. If the individual could exclusively capture the environmental benefits that result from owning the cabin, the demand for cabins would reflect the full value of both the home and the environmental goods it provides, and the market for cabins would be efficient. Unfortunately, in the case of environmental goods, markets often fail to produce an efficient result, because it is rare that any one individual can incur the full benefit, as well as the cost, of a particular level of environmental quality. That is because environmental goods commonly suffer from the presence of externalities (that is, consequences that no one pays for) or a lack of property rights.

There are two types of externalities, negative and positive. Negative externalities exist when individuals bear a portion of the cost associated with a good’s production without having any influence over the related production decisions. For example, parents may have to pay higher health-care costs related to pollution-induced asthma among their children because of increased industrial activity in their neighbourhood. Producers do not consider those costs to others in their decisions. As a result, they produce more goods with negative externalities than is efficient, which leads to more environmental degradation than is socially desirable.

Positive externalities also result in inefficient market outcomes. However, goods that suffer from positive externalities provide more value to individuals in society than is taken into account by those providing the goods. An example of a positive externality can be seen in the case of college roommates sharing an off-campus apartment. Though a clean kitchen may be valued by all the individuals living in the apartment, the person who decides to finally wash the dishes and scrub the kitchen floor is not fully compensated for providing value to all the roommates. Because of that, the decision to clean the kitchen undervalues the benefits of such an action and the kitchen will go uncleaned more often than is socially desirable. Such is the case with environmental quality. Because markets tend to undervalue goods with positive externalities, market outcomes provide a level of environmental quality that is lower than is socially desirable.

Written by Jennifer L. Brown, Contributor to SAGE Publications’ 21st Century Economics (2010).

Top image credit: ?thejack/iStock.com

免费a级毛片_成 人影片 免费观看网站_骚虎